Luca Visual FX builds Mystery & Suspense

For most editors, creating custom music scores tends to fall into the “above my pay grade” category. If you are a whizz with GarageBand or Logic Pro X, then you might dip into Apple’s loop resources. But most commercials and corporate videos are easily serviced by the myriad of stock music sites, like Premium Beat and Music Bed. Some music customization is also possible with tracks from companies like SmartSound.

Yet, none of the go-to music library sites offer curated, genre-based, packages of tracks and elements that make it easy to build up a functional score for longer dramatic productions. Such projects are usually the work of composers or a specific music supervisor, sound designer, or music editor doing a lot of searching and piecing together from a wide range of resources.

Enter Luca Visual FX – a developer best known for visual effects plug-ins, such as Light Kit 2.0. It turns out that Luca Bonomo is also a composer. The first offering is the Mystery & Suspense Music and Sound Library, which is a collection of 500 clips, comprising music themes, atmospheres, drones, loops, and sound effects. This is a complete toolkit designed to make it easy to combine elements, in order to create a custom score for dramatic productions in the mystery or suspense genre.

These tracks are available for purchase as a single library through the LucaVFX website. They are downloaded as uncompressed, stereo AIF files in a 24-bit/96kHz resolution. This means they are of top quality and compatible with any Mac or PC NLE or DAW application. Best yet, is the awesome price of $79. The package is licensed for a single user and may be used for any audio or video production, including for commercial purposes.

Thanks to LucaVFX, I was able to download and test out the Library on a recent short film. The story is a suspense drama in the style of a Twilight Zone episode, so creating a non-specific, ethereal score fits perfectly. Drones, dissonance, and other suspenseful sounds are completely in line, which is where this collection shines.

Although I could have used any application to build this, I opted for Apple’s Final Cut Pro X. Because of its unique keyword structure, it made sense to first set up a separate FCPX library for only the Mystery & Suspense package. During import, I let FCPX create keyword collections based on the Finder folders. This keeps the Mystery & Suspense FCPX library organized in the same way as they are originally grouped. Doing so, facilitates fast and easy sorting and previewing of any of the 500 clips within the music library. Then I created a separate FCPX library for the production itself. With both FCPX libraries open, I could quickly preview and place clips from my music library to the edit sequence for the film, located within the other FCPX library.

Final Cut uses Connected Clips instead of tracks. This means that you can quickly build up and align overlapping atmospheres, transitions, loops, and themes for a densely layered music score in a very freeform manner. I was able to build up a convincing score for a half-hour-long piece in less that an afternoon. Granted, this isn’t mixed yet, but at least I now have the musical elements that I want and where I want them. I feel that style of working is definitely faster in Final Cut Pro X – and more conducive to creative experimentation – but it would certain work just as well in other applications.

The Mystery & Suspense Library is definitely a winner, although I do have a few minor quibbles. First, the music and effects are in keeping with the genre, but don’t go beyond it. When creating a score for this kind of production, you also need some “normal” or “lighter” moods for certain scenes or transitions. I felt that was missing and I would still have to step outside of this package to complete the score. Secondly, many of the clips have a synthesized or electronic tone to them, thanks to the instruments used to create the music. That’s not out of character with the genre, but I still would have liked some of these to include more natural instruments than they do. In fairness to LucaVFX, if the Mystery & Suspense Library is successful, then the company will create more libraries in other genres, including lighter fare.

In conclusion, this is a high quality library perfectly in keeping with its intended genre. Using it is fast and flexible, making it possible for even the most musically-challenged editor to develop a convincing, custom score without breaking the bank.

©2018 Oliver Peters

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Audio Mixing with Premiere Pro

When budgets permit and project needs dictate, I will send my mixes out-of-house to one of a few regular mixers. Typically that means sending them an OMF or AAF to mix in Pro Tools. Then I get the mix and split-tracks back, drop them into my Premiere Pro timeline, and generate master files.

On the other hand, a lot of my work is cutting simple commercials and corporate presentations for in-house use or the web, and these are often less demanding  – 2 to 8 tracks of dialogue, limited sound effects, and music. It’s easy to do the mix inside of the NLE. Bear in mind that I can – and often have – done such a mix in Apple Logic Pro X or Adobe Audition, but the tools inside Premiere Pro are solid enough that I often just keep everything – mix included – inside my editing application. Let’s walk though that process.

Dealing with multiple channels on source clips

Start with your camera files or double-system audio recordings. Depending on the camera model, Premiere Pro will see these source clips as having either stereo (e.g. a Canon C100) or multi-channel mono (e.g. ARRI Alexa) channels. If you recorded a boom mic on channel 1 and a lavaliere mic on channel 2, then these will drop onto your stereo timeline either as two separate mono tracks (Alexa) – or as a single stereo track (C100), with the boom coming out of the left speaker and the lav out of the right. Which one it is will strictly depend on the device used to generate the original recordings.

First, when dual-mic recordings appear as stereo, you have to understand how Premiere Pro deals with stereo sources. Panning in Premiere Pro doesn’t “shift” the audio left, right, or center. Instead, it increases or decreases the relative volume of the left or right half of this stereo field. In our dual-mic scenario, panning the clip or track full left means that we only hear the boom coming out of the left speaker, but nothing out of the right. There are two ways to fix this – either by changing the channel configuration of the source in the browser – or by changing it after the fact in the timeline. Browser changes will not alter the configuration of clips already edited to the timeline. You can change one or more source clips from stereo to dual-mono in the browser, but you can’t make that same type of change to a clip already in your sequence.

Let’s assume that you aren’t going to make any browser changes and instead just want to work in your sequence. If your source clip is treated as dual-mono, then the boom and lav will cut over to track 1 and 2 of your sequence – and the sound will be summed in mono on the output to your speaks. However, if the clip is treated as stereo, then it will only cut over to track 1 of your sequence – and the sound will stay left and right on the output to your speakers. When it’s dual-mono, you can listen to one track versus the other, determine which mic sounds the best, and disable the clip with the other mic. Or you can blend the two using clip volume levels.

If the source clip ends up in the sequence as a stereo clip, then you will want to determine which one of the two mics you want to use for the best sound. To pick only one mic, you will need to change the clip’s audio configuration. When you do that, it’s still a stereo clip, however, both “sides” can be supplied by either one of the two source channels. So, both left and right output will either be the boom or the lav, but not both. If you want to blend both mics together, then you will need to duplicate (option-drag) the audio clip onto an adjacent timeline track, and change the audio channel configuration for both clips. One would be set to the boom for both channels and the other set to only the lav for its two channels. Then adjust clip volume for the two timeline clips.

Configuring your timeline

Like most editors, while I’m working through the stages of rough cutting on the way to an approved final copy, I will have a somewhat messy timeline. I may have multiple music cues on several tracks with only one enabled – just so I can preview alternates for the client. I will have multiple dialogue clips on a few tracks with some disabled, depending on microphone or take options. But when I’m ready to move to the finishing stage, I will duplicate that sequence to create a “final version” and clean that one up. This means getting rid of any disabled clips, collapsing my audio and video clips to the fewest number of tracks, and using Premiere’s track creation/deletion feature to delete all empty tracks – all so I can have the least amount of visual clutter. 

In other blog posts, I’ve discussed working with additional submix buses to create split-track exports; but, for most of these smaller jobs, I will only add one submix bus. (I will explain its purpose in a moment.) Once created, you will need to open the track mixer panel and route the timeline channels from the master to the submix bus and then the output of the submix bus back to the master.

Plug-ins

Premiere Pro CC comes with a nice set of audio plug-ins, which can be augmented with plenty of third-party audio effects filters. I am partial to Waves and iZotope, but these aren’t essential. However, there are several that I do use quite frequently. These three third-party filters will help improve any vocal-heavy piece.

The first two are Vocal Rider and MV2 from Waves and are designed specifically for vocal performances, like voice-overs and interviews. These can be pricey, but Waves has frequent sales, so I was able to pick these up for a fraction of their retail price. Vocal Rider is a real-time, automatic volume adjustment tool. Set the bottom and top parameters and let Vocal Rider do the rest, by automatically pushing the volume up or down on-the-fly. MV2 is similar, but it achieves this through compression on the top and bottom ends of the range. While they operate in a similar fashion, they do produce a different sound. I tend to pick MV2 for voice-overs and Vocal Rider for interviews.

We all know location audio isn’t perfect, which is where my third filter comes in. FxFactory is knows primarily for video plug-ins, but their partnership with Crumplepop has added a nice set of audio filters to their catalog. I find AudioDenoise to be quite helpful and fast in fixing annoying location sounds, like background air conditioning noise. It’s real-time and good-sounding, but like all audio noise reduction, you have to be careful not to overdo it, or everything will sound like it’s underwater.

For my other mix needs, I’ll stick to Premiere’s built-in effects, like EQ, compressors, etc. One that’s useful for music is the stereo imager. If you have a music cue that sounds too monaural, this will let you “expand” the track’s stereo signal so that it is spread more left and right. This often helps when you want the voice-over to cut through the mix a bit better. 

My last plug-in is a broadcast limiter that is placed onto the master bus. I will adjust this tight with a hard limit for broadcast delivery, but much higher (louder allowed) for web files. Be aware that Premiere’s plug-in architecture allows you to have the filter take affect either pre or post-fader. In the case of the master bus, this will also affect the VU display. In other words, if you place a limiter post-fader, then the result will be heard, but not visible through the levels displayed on the VU meters.

Mixing

I have used different mixing strategies over the years with Premiere Pro. I like using the write function of the track mixer to write fader automation. However, I have lately stopped using it – instead going back to manual keyframes within the clips. The reason is probably that my projects tend to get revised often in ways that change timing. Since track automation is based on absolute timeline position, keyframes don’t move when a clip is shifted, like they would when clip-based volume keyframes are used.

Likewise, Adobe has recently added Audition’s ducking for music to Premiere Pro. This uses Adobe’s Sensei artificial intelligence. Unfortunately I don’t find to be “intelligent” enough. Although sometimes it can provide a starting point. For me, it’s simply too coarse and doesn’t intelligently adjust for areas within a music clip that swell or change volume internally. Therefore, I stick with minor manual adjustments to compensate for music changes and to make the vocal parts easy to understand in the mix. Then I will use the track mixer to set overall levels for each track to get the right balance of voice, sound effects, and music.

Once I have a decent balance to my ears, I will temporarily drop the TC Electronic (included with Premiere Pro) Radar loudness plug-in to make sure my mix is CALM-compliant. This is where the submix bus comes in. If I like the overall balance, but I need to bring everything down, it’s an easy matter to simply lower the submix level and remeasure.

Likewise, it’s customary to deliver web versions with louder volume levels than the broadcast mix. Again the submix bus will help, because you cannot raise the volume on the master – only lower it. If you simply want to raise the overall volume of the broadcast mix for web delivery, simply raise the submix fader. Note that when I say louder, I’m NOT talking about slamming the VUs all the way to the top. Typically, a mix that hits -6 is plenty loud for the web. So, for web delivery, I will set a hard limit at -6, but adjust the mix for an average of about -10.

Hopefully this short explanation has provided some insight into mixing within Premiere Pro and will help you make sure that your next project sounds great.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Audio Splits and Stems in Premiere Pro Revisited

Creating multichannel, “split-track” master exports of your final sequences is something that should be a standard step in all of your productions. It’s often a deliverable requirement and having such a file makes later revisions or derivative projects much easier to produce. If you are a Final Cut Pro X user, the “audio lanes” feature makes it easy to organize and export sequences with isolated channels for dialogue, music, and effects. FCPX pros like to tweak the noses of other NLE users about how much easier it is in FCPX. While that’s more or less true – and, in fact, can be a lot deeper than simply a few aggregate channels – that doesn’t mean it’s particularly hard or less versatile in Premiere Pro.

Last year I wrote about how to set this up using Premiere submix tracks, which is a standard audio post workflow, common to most DAW and mix applications. Go back and read the article for more detail. But, what about sequences that are already edited, which didn’t start with a track configuration already set up with submix tracks and proper output routing? In fact, that’s quite easy, too, which brings me to today’s post.

Step 1 – Edit

Start out by editing as you always have, using your standard sequence presets. I’ve created a few custom presets that I normally use, based on the several standard formats I work in, like 1080p/23.976 and 1080p/29.97. These typically require stereo mixes, so my presets start with a minimum configuration of one picture track, two standard audio tracks, and stereo output. This is the starting point, but more video and audio tracks get added, as needed, during the course of editing.

Get into a habit of organizing your audio tracks. Typically this means dialogue and VO tracks towards the top (A1-A4), then sound effects (A5-A8), and finally music (A9-A12). Keep like audio types on their intended tracks. What you don’t want to do is mix different audio types onto the same track. For instance, don’t put sound effects onto tracks that you’ve designated for dialogue clips. Of course, the number of actual tracks needed for these audio types will vary with your projects. A simple VO+music sequence will only have two to four tracks, while dramatic entertainment pieces will have a lot more. Delete all empty audio tracks when you are ready to mix.

Mix for stereo output as you normally would. This means balancing components using keyframes and clip mixing. Then perform overall adjustments and “riding faders” in the track mixer. This is also where I add global effects, like compression for dialogue and limiting for the master mix.

Output your final mixed master file for delivery.

Step 2 – Multichannel DME sequences

The next step is to create or open a new multichannel DME (dialogue/music/effects) sequence. I’ve already created a custom preset, which you may download and install. It’s set up as 1080p/23.976, with two standard audio channels and three, pre-labelled stereo submix channels, but you can customize yours as needed. The master output is multichannel (8-channels), which is sufficient to cover stereo pairs for the final mix, plus isolated pairs for each of the three submixes – dialogue, music, and effects.

Next, copy-and-paste all clips from your final stereo sequence to the new multichannel sequence. If you have more than one track of picture and two tracks of audio, the new blank sequence will simply auto-populate more tracks once you paste the clips into it. The result should look the same, except with the additional three submix tracks at the bottom of your timeline. At this stage, the output of all tracks is still routed to the stereo master output and the submix tracks are bypassed.

Now open the track mixer panel and, from the pulldown output selector, switch each channel from master to its appropriate submix channel. Dialogue tracks to DIA, music tracks to MUS, and effects tracks to SFX. The sequence preset is already set up with proper output routing. All submixes go to output 1 and 2 (composite stereo mix), along with their isolated output – dialogue to 3 and 4, effects to 5 and 6, music to 7 and 8. As with your stereo mix, level adjustments and plug-in processing (compression, EQ, limiting, etc.) can be added to each of the submix channels.

Note: while not essential, multichannel, split-track master files are most useful when they are also textless. So, before outputting, I would recommend disabling all titles and lower third graphics in this sequence. The result is clean video – great for quick fixes later in the event of spelling errors or a title change.

Step 3 – Multichannel export

Now that the sequence is properly organized, you’ve got to export the multichannel sequence. I have created a mastering export preset, which you may also download. It works in the various Adobe CC apps, but is designed for Adobe Media Encoder workflows. This preset will match its output to the video size and frame rate of your sequence and master to a file with the ProRes4444 codec. The audio is set for eight output channels, configured as four stereo pairs – composite mix, plus three DME channels.

To test your exported file, simply reimport the multichannel file back into Premiere Pro and drop it onto a timeline. There you should see four independent stereo channels with audio organized according to the description above.

Presets

I have created a sequence and an export preset, which you may download here. I have only tested these on Mac systems, where they are installed into the Adobe folder contained within the user’s Documents folder. The sequence preset is placed into the Premiere Pro folder and the export preset into the Adobe Media Encoder folder. If you’ve updated the Adobe apps along the way, you will have a number of version subfolders. As of December 2017, the 12.0 subfolder is the correct location. Happy mixing!

©2017 Oliver Peters

Sound Forge Pro Mac 3

There are plenty of modern tools that deal with audio, but sometimes you need a product with a very narrow focus to do the job without compromise. That’s where Sound Forge Pro fits in. Originally part of Sonic Foundry’s software development, the product, along with its siblings Vegas Pro and Acid, migrated to Sony Creative Software. Sony, in turn, sold off those products to German software developer Magix, where they appear to have found a good home. I recently tested Sound Forge Pro Mac 3, which is the macOS companion to Sound Forge Pro 11 on the Windows side. (Sound Forge Pro 12 is expected to roll out in 2018.) Both are advanced, multichannel audio editors, dedicated to editing, processing, and mastering individual audio files, as opposed to a DAW application, which is designed for mixing.

Although Magix’s other products are PC-centric, they’ve done a good job embracing and improving the Mac products. Sound Forge also comes in the Audio Studio version – a lower cost Windows product designed for users who don’t need quite as many features. There is no Mac equivalent for it yet. The former Mac version that was sold through Apple’s Mac App Store is no longer available. Naturally a product like Sound Forge Pro may require some justification for its price tag, since the application competes with great audio tools within most modern NLEs, like Final Cut Pro X, Premiere Pro, or Resolve. It’s also competing with Adobe Audition (included with a Creative Cloud subscription) and Apple Logic Pro X, which sports a lower cost.

Sound Forge Pro is primarily designed as a dedicated audio mastering application, that does precision audio editing. It works with multichannel audio files (up to 32 tracks) in maximum bit rates of 24-bit, 32-bit, and 64-bit float at up to 192kHz. It also works with video files, although it will only import the audio channels for processing. Sound Forge Pro for the Mac comes with several iZotope plug-ins, including Declicker, Declipper, Denoiser, Ozone Elements 7, and RX Elements. (The Windows version includes a slightly different mix of iZotope plug-ins.) That’s on top Magix’s own plug-ins and any other AU plug-ins that might already be installed on your Mac from other applications. The bottom line is that you have a lot of effects and processing horsepower to work with when using Sound Forge Pro.

Even though Sound Forge Pro is essentially a single file editor, you can work with multiple individual files. Multiple files are displayed within the interface as horizontal tabs or in a vertical stack. You can process multiple files at the same time and can copy and paste between them. You can also copy and paste between individual channels within a single multichannel file.

As an audio editor, it’s fast, tactile, and non-destructive, making it ideal for music editing, podcasts, radio interviews, and more. For audio producers, it complies with Red Book Standard CD authoring. The attraction for video editors is its mastering tools, especially loudness control for broadcast compliance. Both Magix’s Wave Hammer and iZotope Ozone 7 Elements’ mastering tools are great for solving loudness issues. That’s aided by accurate LUFS metering. Other cool tools include AutoTrim, which automatically removes gaps of silence at the beginnings and ends of files or from regions within a file. There is also élastique Timestretch, a processing tool to slow down or speed up audio, while maintaining the correct pitch. Timestretch can be applied to an entire file or simply a section within a file. Effects tools and plug-ins are divided into those that require processing and those that can be played in real-time. For example, Timestretch is applied as a processing step, whereas a reverb filter would play in real time. Processing is typically fast on any modern desktop or laptop computer, thanks to the application’s 64-bit engine.

Basic editing is as simple as marking a section and hitting the delete key. You can also split a file into events and then trim, delete, move, or copy & paste event blocks. If you slide an event to overlap another, a crossfade is automatically created. You can adjust the fade-in/fade-out slopes of these crossfades. The only missing item is the ability to scrub through audio in any fashion. So, no mouse scrub or JKL-key jogging with audible audio, as you’d normally find in an NLE application. That’s apparently there in the Windows versions, but not in this Mac version.

All in all, if audio is a significant part of your workload and you want to handle it in a better and easier fashion, then Sound Forge Pro Mac 3 is worth the investment.

Originally written for RedShark News.

©2017 Oliver Peters

Sonicfire Pro 6

df0517_sfp6_01Most editors have a pretty innate sense of rhythm, yet often finding and tailoring the right music to your video poses a challenge for even the most talented cutter. SmartSound has provided a solution to this dilemma for many years. Last year they updated their custom Sonicfire Pro audio mixing software to version 6. This update adds interesting new features and support for today’s crop of NLEs.

The starting point is SmartSound’s library of original music. You buy the tracks you like once, which includes easy licensing, and then tailor the song for the length needed, for as many productions as required. SmartSound’s offerings cover a wide range of genres, all of which have been quantized into beat blocks that the Sonicfire Pro application automatically uses for timing adjustments. While this might sound like all the music would need to be synthetically generated – it isn’t. These tracks are played by humans with real instruments, so if you want rock, electronic, symphonic, etc. – you’ve got it. Many selections have been mood-mapped – SmartSound’s term to identify music cues that are multi-layered with up to nine instrument layers. If you like the track, but want to lose the drums or lower the lead instrument’s volume within the mix, simply turn off that layer or adjust its volume envelope. Both multi-layer and single-layer tracks can all be adjusted for time within Sonicfire Pro.df0517_sfp6_02

Sonicfire Pro 6 brings with it a modern interface

The new Sonicfire Pro 6 application is a welcomed update. It’s more streamlined than version 5, with a clean, modern interface. This excellent mini-tutorial by Larry Jordan will give you a quick overview of how it works.

df0517_sfp6_08From within the application, you have immediate access to all of your owned titles, as well as any other SmartSound selection (when you are online). If you don’t already own it, find something from SmartSound that you like, buy and download it right from within Sonicfire Pro 6. In the upper browser pane, search for specific tracks, albums and style, or sort by tempo or intensity.

Naturally, Sonicfire Pro 6 supports video, since it’s intended to empower user-friendly music scoring to picture. To add a video clip, show the video window and from its pulldown, select “Add Video”. You can also resize the Sonicfire Pro 6 interface larger (it references your monitor size automatically) and at the right size it will allow you to have both the Video window and either the Inspector or Markers window open simultaneously, so you can actually reference your video when making adjustments in these panels. Now the video will run in sync with your timeline. You can also import audio from a video file, if you want to do the whole mix in Sonicfire – much like a traditional DAW. In addition, you can also export tracks, full mixes and/or complete audio/video files with completed mixes. However, this is optional, as you can run SFP6 as just an audio-only tool without ever involving video, should you decide to work that way.

df0517_sfp6_04df0517_sfp6_05When you initially pick a track, three settings will get you started. The first is duration. Enter the desired duration and Sonicfire Pro will change the song structure to fit the length. It does this without just repeating the same loop. Next, pick your variation. Each track has a set of variations, which are different arrangements of the same song. Finally, for mood-mapped (multi-layer) tracks, make a mood selection. Moods are different instrument arrangements within the song, going from a full mix to various combinations of dominant instruments used for that song. Finally, there’s a advanced tab for additional options, including adjusting the mix of multi-layer tracks and shifting the tempo. A really cool search function is “Tap”. Simply tap out the beats by clicking the Tap button a few times and Sonicfire Pro will subsequently sort the library selections based on the tempo you tapped out.

df0517_sfp6_06Working in the timeline

Once you’ve auditioned and (optionally) adjusted the duration, variation and mood, drag and drop the selection to the timeline at the bottom of the application window. If you need the track to be longer or shorter, just drag the edge of the clip to the desired length and Sonicfire Pro will automatically change the arrangement as needed, based on SmartSound’s proprietary beat block structure. Additional selections can be dragged to the timeline, so it’s easy to score an entire video using multiple track selections. Each added song dragged to the timeline creates its own, new track on the timeline. This enables you to still make volume, length and mood adjustments to a song without affecting other surrounding selections on that timeline.

Within the inspector you have additional controls, including the fade in and out handles for a clip, along with a new timing control feature. This was introduced in SFP5, but improved in version 6. As of this writing SmartSound has updated 110 albums for this feature, that’s over 1,100 tracks, and adds new albums regularly. For the tracks that have been updated, when you enable timing control, several markers appear on the clip in the timeline. These markers can be dragged to better adjust song changes to match key points in your video. When you drag a marker, SFP6 automatically shuffles the arrangement of that song. For example, if you want a big ending to happen at a better match for your video cut, sliding the marker will make this happen. In actual practice during my testing, this was a bit of trial and error. In one case, a change made too close to the end left me with an incomplete ending. I needed to also slide the track length a tad longer for SFP6 to come up with a good-sounding ending. But, this feature is designed to enable experimentation to produce a custom score, so, don’t be afraid to play with it.

df0517_sfp6_07Finally, as part of its integration with NLEs, Sonicfire offers a new feature called “Cut-Video-to-Music”. Final Cut Pro X, Premiere Pro CC, Avid Media Composer and Vegas Pro are all supported. This new feature lets you export a track along with a corresponding XML file, which in turn is imported into the designated project. Inside the NLE, the track shows up with markers identifying your choice of either beats, strong beats only, SmartSound blocks or music sections, making it easy to edit picture cuts accordingly.

Conclusion

Make sure you are running on the most recent version after you initially install the software. I did run into some minor issues with the initial 6.0.0 version, which were fixed with the df0517_sfp6_036.0.3 update. Updates may be downloaded from the SmartSound website. Overall, SmartSound’s Sonicfire Pro 6 is a welcomed refresh to a wonderful tool. To my knowledge, no other software developer offers anything to match it. Adobe briefly tried with its custom music features inside Soundbooth, but then dropped this function after a couple of years. Magix and Apple offer applications where you can create your own loop-based tunes; however, neither starts with finished compositions that can be modified both in length and arrangement with such ease.

While music choices are very subjective, I’ve personally built up a SmartSound library over the years, which lets me offer clients quality music alternatives without much fuss or cost. Just another service I can offer to a client. It allows you as an editor to be the hero to your client and accomplish the task expediently and on budget.

©2017 Oliver Peters

Audio Splits and Stems in Premiere Pro

df2916_audspltppro_8_sm

When TV shows and feature films are being mixed, the final deliverables usually include audio stems as separate audio files or married to a multi-channel video master file or tape. Stems are the isolated submix channels for dialogue, sound effects and music. These elements are typically called DME (dialogue, music, effects) stems or splits and a multi-channel master file that includes these is usually called a split-track submaster. These isolated tracks are normally at mix level, meaning that you can combine them and the sum should equal the same level and mix as the final composite mixed track.

The benefit of having such stems is that you can easily replace elements, like re-recording dialogue in a different language, without having to dive back into the original audio project. The simplest form is to have 3 stereo stem tracks (6 mono tracks) for left and right dialogue, sound effects and music. Obviously, if you have a 5.1 surround mix, you’ll end up with a lot more tracks. There are also other variations for sports or comedy shows. For example, sports shows often isolate the voice-over announcer material from an on-camera dialogue. Comedy shows may isolate the laugh track as a stem. In these cases, rather than 3 stereo DME stems, you might have 4 or more. In other cases, the music and effects stems are combined to end up with a single stereo M&E track (music and effects minus dialogue).

Although this is common practice for entertainment programming, it should also be common practice if you work in short films, corporate videos or commercials. Creating such split-track submasters at the time you finish your project can often save your bacon at some point down the line. I ran into this during the past week. df2916_audspltppro_1A large corporate client needed to replace the music tracks on 11 training videos. These videos were originally editing in 2010 using Final Cut Pro 7 and mixed in Pro Tools. Although it may have been possible to resurrect the old project files, doing so would have been problematic. However, in 2010, I had exported split-track submasters with the final picture and isolated stereo tracks for dialogue, sound effects and music. These have become the new source for our edit – now 6 years later. Since I am editing these in Premiere Pro CC, it is important to also create new split-track submasters, with the revised music tracks, should we ever need to do this again in the future.

Setting up a new Premiere Pro sequence 

I’m usually editing in either Final Cut Pro X or Premiere Pro CC these days. It’s easy to generate a multi-channel master file with isolated DME stems in FCP X, by using the Roles function. However, to do this, you need to make sure you properly assign the correct Roles from the get-go. Assuming that you’ve done this for dialogue, sound effects and music Roles on the source clips, then the stems become self-sorting upon export – based on how you route a Role to its corresponding export channel. When it comes to audio editing and mixing, I find Premiere Pro CC’s approach more to my liking. This process is relatively easy in Premiere, too; however, you have to set up a proper sequence designed for this type of audio work. That’s better than trying to sort it out at the end of the line.

df2916_audspltppro_4The first thing you’ll need to do is create a custom preset. By default, sequence presets are configured with a certain number of tracks routed to a stereo master output. This creates a 2-channel file on export. Start by changing the track configuration to multi-channel and set the number of output channels. My requirement is to end up with an 8-channel file that includes a stereo mix, plus stereo stems for isolated dialogue, sound effects and music. Next, add the number of tracks you need and assign them as “standard” for the regular tracks or “stereo submix” for the submix tracks.

df2916_audspltppro_2This is a simple example with 3 regular tracks and 3 submix tracks, because this was a simple project. A more complete project would have more regular tracks, depending on how much overlapping dialogue or sound effects or music you are working with on the timeline. For instance, some editors like to set up “zones” for types of audio. You might decide to have 24 timeline tracks, with 1-8 used for dialogue, 9-18 for sound effects and 17-24 for music. In this case, you would still only need 3 submix tracks for the aggregate of the dialogue, sound effects and music.

df2916_audspltppro_5Rename the submix tracks in the timeline. I’ve renamed Submix 1-3 as DIA, SFX and MUS for easy recognition. With Premiere Pro, you can mix audio in several different places, such as the clip mixer or the audio track mixer. Go to the audio track mixer and assign the channel output and routing. (Channel output can also be assigned in the sequence preset panel.) For each of the regular tracks, I’ve set the pulldown for routing to the corresponding submix track. Audio 1 to DIA, Audio 2 to SFX and Audio 3 to MUS. The 3 submix tracks are all routed to the Master output.

df2916_audspltppro_3The last step is to properly assign channel routing. With this sequence preset, master channels 1 and 2 will contain the full mix. First, when you export a 2-channel file as a master file or a review copy, by default only the first 2 output channels are used. So these will always get the mix without you having to change anything. Second, most of us tend to edit with stereo monitoring systems. Again, output channels 1 and 2 are the default, which means you’ll always be monitoring the full mix, unless you make changes or solo a track. Output channels 3-8 correspond to the stereo stems. Therefore, to enable this to happen automatically, you must assign the channel output in the following configuration: DIA (Submix 1) to 1-2 and 3-4, SFX (Submix 2) to 1-2 and 5-6, and MUS (Submix 3) to 1-2 and 7-8. The result is that everything goes to both the full mix, as well as the isolated stereo channel for each audio component – dialogue, sound effects and music.

Editing in the custom timeline

Once you’ve set up the timeline, the rest is easy. Edit any dialogue clips to track 1, sound effects to track 2 and music to track 3. In a more complex example, like the 24-track timeline I referred to earlier, you’d work in the “zones” that you had organized. If 1-8 are routed to the dialogue submix track, then you would edit dialogue clips only to tracks 1-8. Same for the corresponding sound effects and music tracks. Clips levels can still be adjusted as you normally would. But, by having submix tracks, you can adjust the level of all dialogue by moving the single, DIA submix fader in the audio track mixer. This can also be automated. If you want a common filter, like a compressor, added all of one stem – like a compressor across all sound effects – simply assign it from the pulldown within that submix channel strip.

Exporting the file

df2916_audspltppro_6The last step is exporting your spilt-track submaster file. If this isn’t correct, the rest was all for naught. The best formats to use are either a QuickTime ProRes file or one of the MXF OP1a choices. In the audio tab of the export settings panel, change the pulldown channel selection from Stereo to 8 channels. Now each of your timeline output channels will be exported as a separate mono track in the file. These correspond to your 4 stereo mix groups – the full mix plus stems. Now in one single, neat file, you have the final image and mix, along with the isolated stems that can facilitate easy changes down the road. Depending on the nature of the project, you might also want to export versions with and without titles for an extra level of future-proofing.

Reusing the file

df2916_audspltppro_7If you decide to use this exported submaster file at a later date as a source clip for a new edit, simply import it into Premiere Pro like any other form of media. However, because its channel structure will be read as 8 mono channels, you will need to modify the file using the Modify-Audio Channels contextual menu (right-click the clip). Change the clip channel format from Mono to Stereo, which turns your 8 mono channels back into the left and right sides of 4 stereo channels. You may then ignore the remaining “unassigned” clip channels. Do not change any of the check boxes.

Hopefully, by following this guide, you’ll find that creating timelines with stem tracks becomes second nature. It can sure help you years later, as I found out yet again this past week!

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©2016 Oliver Peters

iZotope RX Loudness Control

 

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As more emphasis is being placed on loudness compliance around the world, it’s important for editors and sound mixers to have the right tools to stay legal. iZotope offers its Insight metering to see where your levels are, but a new addition is the RX Loudness Control plug-in. This not only analyzes your mix, but fixes it to be compliant. This plug-in is designed for Avid ProTools and Media Composer, along with the Adobe Creative Cloud applications. It works with mono, stereo, or surround mixes, but is not a real-time plug-in. Instead, it quickly analyzes your final mix and performs a faster-than-real-time processing of the track.

RX Loudness Control includes presets for eight international loudness standards and correction includes three components: fixed gain to hit a specific target, optional short-term loudness compression, and True Peak limiting. By design, the intent is to leave the mix dynamics in place, but where necessary IRC II (Intelligent Release Control) limiting is used. This style of limiting is also found in iZotope’s Ozone 6 mastering suite.

Operation for editors using Avid Media Composer or Adobe Premiere Pro CC couldn’t be easier. In Media Composer, first create a mixdown clip of your timeline mix and place that on an available track. Mute all other tracks. Apply the RX Loudness Control as an AudioSuite filter to the mixdown clip. Set the loudness standard preset, analyze, and render.

With the Adobe applications, the RX Loudness Control appears as an export preset in the export module of Premiere Pro or through Adobe Media Encoder. Simply export your timeline using the RX Loudness preset. Make adjustments to the settings as needed. If you want the mixed/processed track to automatically be imported back into the same project, make sure to check that box. Now export. The new .wav file will appear in your project, so simply mute all existing audio in your sequence and drop the processed .wav onto an empty audio track.

In the current version, there is no native support for Apple Final Cut Pro X or Logic Pro X. However, if you also own, subscribe to, or have access to Avid or Adobe applications (with the RX Loudness Control plug-in installed), you could use one of those to process your FCP X mix. First export a mix from FCP X as either a self-contained QuickTime movie or an audio file. Bring that into one of the other applications to encode the file using RX Loudness Control. When that’s completed, import the processed audio track back into FCP X. Mute or detach and remove all audio from your project (edited timeline) and connect the newly processed composite mix for your final compliant audio mix.

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetworks.

©2015 Oliver Peters