Everest VR and DaVinci Resolve Studio

In April of 2017, world famous climber Ueli Steck died while preparing to climb both Mount Everest and Mount Lhotse without the use of bottled oxygen. Ueli’s close friends Jonathan Griffith and Sherpa Tenji attempted to finish this project while director/photographer Griffith captured the entire story. The result is the 3D VR documentary, Everest VR: Journey to the Top of the World. It was produced by Facebook’s Oculus and teased at last year’s Oculus Connect event. Post-production was completed in February and the documentary is being distributed through Oculus’ content channel.

Veteran visual effects artist Matthew DeJohn was added to the team to handle end-to-end post as a producer, visual effects supervisor, and editor. DeJohn’s background includes camera, editing, and visual effects with a lot of experience in both traditional visual effects, 2D to 3D conversion, and 360 virtual reality. Before going freelance, he worked at In3, Digital Domain, Legend3D, and VRTUL.

As an editor, DeJohn was familiar with most of the usual tools, but opted to use Blackmagic’s DaVinci Resolve Studio and Fusion Studio applications as the post-production hub for the Everest VR documentary. Posting stereoscopic, 360-degree content can be quite challenging, so I took the opportunity to speak with DeJohn about using DaVinci Resolve Studio on this project.

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[OP] Please tell me a bit about your shift to DaVinci Resolve Studio as the editing tool of choice.

[MD] I have had a high comfort level with Premiere Pro and also know Final Cut Pro. Premiere has good VR tools and there’s support for it. In addition to these tools I was using Fusion Studio in my workflow so it was a natural to look at DaVinci Resolve Studio as a way to combine my Fusion Studio work with my editorial work.

I made the switch about a year and half ago and it simplified my workflow dramatically. It integrated a lot of different aspects all under one roof – the editorial page, the color page, the Fusion page, and the speed to work with high-res footage. From an editing perspective, the tools are all there that I was used to in what I would argue is a cleaner interface. Sometimes, software just collects all of these features over time. DaVinci Resolve Studio is early in its editorial development trajectory, but it’s still deep. Yet it doesn’t feel like it has a lot of baggage.

[OP] Stereo and VR projects can often be challenging, because of the large frame sizes. How did DaVinci Resolve Studio help you there?

[MD] Traditionally 360 content uses a 2:1 aspect ratio, so 4K x 2K. If it’s going to be a stereoscopic 360 experience, then you stack a left and right eye image on top of each other. It ends up being 4K x 4K square – two 4K x 2K frames stacked on top of each other. With DaVinci Resolve Studio and the graphics card I have, I can handle a 4K x 4K full online workflow. This project was to be delivered as 8K x 8K. The hardware I had wasn’t quite up to it, so I used an offline/online approach. I created 2K x 2K proxy files and then relinked to the full resolution sources later.  I just had to unlink the timeline and then reconnect it to another bin with my 8K media.

You can cut a stereo project just looking at the image for one eye, then conform the other eye, and then combine them. I chose to cut with the stacked format. My editing was done looking at the full 360 unwrapped, but my review was done through a VR headset from the Fusion page. From there I was also able to review the stereoscopic effect on a 3D monitor. 3D monitoring can also be done on the color page, though I didn’t use that feature on this project.

[OP] I know that successful VR is equal parts production and post. And that post goes much more smoothly with a lot of planning before anyone starts. Walk me through the nuts and bolts of the camera systems and how Everest VR was tackled in post.

[MD] Jon Griffith – the director, cameraman, and alpinist – a man of many talents – utilized a number of different systems. He used the Yi Halo, which is a 17-camera circular array. Jon also used the Z CAM V1 and V1 Pro cameras. All were stereoscopic 360 camera systems.

The Yi Halo camera used the Jump cloud stitcher from Google. You upload material to that service and it produces an 8K x 8K final stitch and also a proxy 2K x 2K stitch. I would cut with the 2K x 2K and then conform to the 8K x 8K. That was for the earlier footage. The Jump stitcher is no longer active, so for the more recent footage Jon switched to the Z CAM systems. For those, he would run through Z CAM’s Wonderstitch application, with is auto-stitching software. For the final, we would either clean up any stitching artifacts in Fusion Studio or restitch it in Mistika VR.

Once we had done that, we would use Fusion Studio for any rig removal and fine-tuned adjustments. No matter how good these cameras and stitching software are, they can fail in some situations. For instance, if the subject is too close to the camera or walks between seams. There’s quite a bit of composting/fixing that needs to be done and Fusion Studio was used heavily for that.

[OP] Everest VR consists of three episodes ranging from just under 10 minutes to under 17 minutes. A traditional cinema film, shot conservatively, might have a 10:1 shooting ratio. How does that sort of ratio equate on a virtual reality film like this?

[MD] As far as the percentage of shots captured versus used, we were in the 80-85% range of clips that ended up in the final piece. It’s a pretty high figure, but Jon captured every shot for a reason with many challenging setups – sometimes on the side of an ice waterfall. Obviously there weren’t many retakes. Of course the running time of raw footage would result in a much higher ratio. That’s because we had to let the cameras run for an extended period of time. It takes a while for a climber to make his way up a cliff face!

[OP] Both VR and stereo imagery present challenges in how shots are planned and edited. Not only for story and pacing, but also to keep the audience comfortable without the danger of motion-induced nausea. What was done to address those issues with Everest VR?

[MD] When it comes to framing, bear in mind there really is no frame in VR. Jon has a very good sense of what will work in a VR headset. He constructed shots that make sense for that medium, staging his shots appropriately without any moving camera shots. The action moved around you as the viewer. As such, the story flows and the imagery doesn’t feel slow even though the camera doesn’t move. When they were on a cliffside, he would spend a lot of time rigging the camera system. It would be floated off the side of the cliff enough so that we could paint the rigging out. Then you just see the climber coming up next to you.

The editorial language is definitely different for 360 and stereoscopic 360. Where you might normally have shots that would go for three seconds or so, our shots go for 10 to 20 seconds, so the action on-screen really matters. The cutting pace is slower, but what’s happening within the frame isn’t. During editing, we would plan from cut to cut exactly where we believed the viewer would be looking. We would make sure that as we went to the next shot, the scene would be oriented to where we wanted the viewer to look. It was really about managing the 360 hand-off between shots, so that viewers could follow the story. They didn’t have to whip their head from one side of the frame to the other to follow the action.

In some cases, like an elevation change – where someone is climbing at the top of the view and the next cut is someone climbing below – we would use audio cues. The entire piece was mixed in ambisonic third order, which means you get spatial awareness around and vertically. If the viewer was looking up, an audio cue from below would trigger them to look down at the subject for the next shot. A lot of that orchestration happens in the edit, as well as the mix.

[OP] Please explain what you mean by the orientation of the image.

[MD] The image comes out of the camera system at a fixed point, but based on your edit, you will likely need to change that. For the shots where we needed to adjust the XYZ axis orientation, we would add a Panomap node in the Fusion page within DaVinci Resolve Studio and shift the orientation as needed. That would show up live in the edit page. This way we could change what would become the center of the view.

The biggest 3D issue is to make sure the vertical alignment is done correctly. For the most part these camera systems handled it very well, but there are usually some corrections to be made. One of these corrections is to flatten the 3D effect at the poles of the image. The stereoscopic effect requires that images be horizontally offset. There is no correct way to achieve this at the poles, because we can’t guarantee how the viewer’s head is oriented when they look at the poles. In traditional cinema, the stereo image can affect your cutting, but with our pacing, there was enough time for a viewer to re-converge their view to a different distance comfortably.

[OP] Fusion was used for some of the visual effects, but when do you simply use the integrated Fusion page within DaVinci Resolve Studio versus a standalone version of the Fusion Studio application?

[MD] All of the orientation was handled by me during the edit by using the integrated Fusion page within DaVinci Resolve Studio. Some simple touch-ups, like painting out tripods, were also done in the Fusion page. There are some graphics that show the elevation of Everest or the climbers’ paths. These were all animated in the Fusion page and then they showed up live in the timeline. This way, changes and quick tweaks were easy to do and they updated in real-time.

We used the standalone version of Fusion Studio for some of the more complex stitches and for fixing shots. Fusion Studio is used a lot in the visual effects industry, because of its scriptability, speed, and extensive toolset. Keith Kolod was the compositor/stitcher for those shots. I sent him the files to work on in the standalone version of Fusion Studio. This work was a bit heavier and would take longer to render. He would send those back and I would cut those into the timeline as a finished file.

[OP] Since DaVinci Resolve Studio is an all-in-one tool covering edit, effects, color, and audio, how did you approach audio post and the color grade?

[MD] The Initial audio editing was done in the edit and Fairlight pages of DaVinci Resolve Studio. I cut in all of the temp sounds and music tracks to get the bone structure in place. The Fairlight page allowed me to get in deeper than a normal edit application would. Jon recorded multiple takes for his narration lines. I would stack those on the Fairlight page as audio layers and audition different takes very quickly just by re-arranging the layers. Once I had the take I liked, I left the others there so I could always go back to them. But only the top layer is active.

After that, I made a Pro Tools turnover package for Brendan Hogan and his team at Impossible Acoustic. They did the final mix in Pro Tools, because there are some specific built-in tools for 3D ambisonic audio. They took the bones, added a lot of Foley, and did a much better job of the final mix than I ever could.

I worked on the color correction myself. The way this piece was shot, you only had one opportunity to get up the mountain. At least on the actual Everest climb, there aren’t a lot of takes. I ended up doing color right from the beginning, just to make sure the color matched for all of those different cameras. Each had a different color response and log curve. I wanted to get a base grade from the very beginning just to make sure the snow looked the same from shot to shot. By the time we got to the end, there were very minimal changes to the color. It was mainly to make sure that the grade we had done while looking at Rec. 709 monitoring translated correctly to the headset, because the black levels are a bit different in the headsets.

[OP] In the end, were you 100% satisfied with the results?

[MD] Jon and Oculus held us to a high level in regards to the stitch and the rig removals. As a visual effects guy, there’s always something, if you look really hard! (laughs) Every single shot is a visual effects shot in a show like this. The tripod always has to be painted out. The cameraman always needs to be painted out if they didn’t hide well enough.

The Yi Halo doesn’t actually capture the bottom 40 degrees out of the full 360. You have to make up that bottom part with matte painting to complete the 360. Jon shot reference photos and we used those in some cases. There is a lot of extra material in a 360 shot, so it’s all about doing a really nice clone paint job within Fusion Studio or the Fusion page of DaVinci Resolve Studio to complete the 360.

Overall, as compared with all the other live-action VR experiences I’ve seen, the quality of this piece is among the very best. Jon’s shooting style, his drive for a flawless experience, the tools we used, and the skill of all those involved helped make this project a success.

The article originally written for Creative Planet Network.

©2020 Oliver Peters

Video Technology 2020 – Editing Software

Four editing applications dominate the professional market: Adobe Premiere Pro, Apple Final Cut Pro X, Avid Media Composer, and Blackmagic Design DaVinci Resolve. Established facilities are still heavy Avid users, with Adobe being the up-and-coming choice. This doesn’t mean that Final Cut Pro X lost out. Going into 2020, Apple can tout FCPX as the best-selling version of its professional editing tool. It most likely has three million users after nearly nine years on the market. While pro editors in the US are often reluctant to adopt FCPX, this innovative application has earned wider acceptance in the broader international market.

The three “A”s have been battling for editing market share, but the wild card is Blackmagic Design’s DaVinci Resolve. It started as a high-end color correction application, but through Blackmagic’s acquisitions and fast development pace, Resolve is becoming an all-in-one application rivaling Autodesk Smoke or Avid DS. Recent versions bring enhanced creative editing tools, making it possible to edit, mix, composite, grade, and deliver entirely from Resolve. No need to roundtrip with other applications. Blackmagic is so dedicated to Resolve as an editor that they introduced a special editor keyboard.

Is Resolve attractive enough to sway editors to shift away from other tools? The answer for most in 2020 will still be “no.” Experienced editors have made their choice and all of the current options are quite good. However, Resolve does make the most sense for new users with no prior allegiances. The caveat is advanced finishing. Users may edit in an editing application, but then roundtrip to Resolve and back for grading. Unfortunately these roundtrips can be problematic. So I do think that many will opt to cut creatively in their NLE of choice, but then send to Resolve for the final grade, mix, and VFX work. Expect to see Resolve’s finishing footprint expand in 2020.

Two challenges confront these companies in 2020: multi-user collaboration and high dynamic range (HDR) delivery. Collaboration is an Avid strength, but not so for the other three. Blackmagic and Adobe have an approach to project sharing, but still not what Avid users have come to expect. Apple offers nothing directly, but there are some third-party workarounds. Expect 2020 to yield collaboration improvements for Final Cut Pro X and Premiere Pro.

HDR is a more complex situation requiring specialized hardware for proper monitoring. There simply is no way to accurately view HDR on any computer display. All of these companies are developing software pipelines to deal with HDR, but in 2020, HDR delivery will still require specific hardware that will remain the domain of dedicated color correction facilities.

Finally, as with cameras, AI will become an increasing aspect of post hardware. You already see that in Apple’s shape recognition within FCPX (automatic sorting of wides and close-ups) or Adobe Sensei for content replacement and automatic music editing. Expect to see more of these features introduced in coming software versions.

Originally written for Creative Planet Network.

©2020 Oliver Peters

DaVinci Resolve Editor Keyboard

Blackmagic Design doubled-down on advanced editing features in 2019 by introducing a new editing mode to DaVinci Resolve 16 called the cut page. They also added a dedicated editor’s keyboard – something that warms the heart of any editor who started their career in a linear edit suite. After some post-NAB feedback and adjustment, the keyboard is finally ready for prime time, running with DaVinci Resolve 16.1 (currently in public beta) or later.

Blackmagic Design’s Grant Petty comes from a broadcast engineering background and knows how fast tape editing was with the right controller. Speed is lost using a mouse-centric, drag-and-drop approach, so the DaVinci Resolve keyboard is designed to put speed back into modern edit workflows. Blackmagic Design was kind enough to loan me a keyboard for a couple of weeks of testing for this review.

Hardware design

The keyboard is very reminiscent of Sony’s BVE keyboards of the past. That’s not simply cosmetic – there are a number of plastic editing keyboards with a shuttle knob – it’s about precision engineering. The DaVinci Resolve search dial (job/shuttle/scroll wheel) truly feels like it has the same type of ballistics and tactile feedback that a Sony dial gave you. The DaVinci Resolve keyboard is built into a sturdy metal case with keycaps that are designed to take some pounding. They intend for the keyboard to last and will offer replacement parts as needed. In short, don’t think of this as a product you’ll have to toss out in a few years.

The keyboard connects via USB-C. But it also worked on the USB3.0 connection of a two-year old iMac and MacBook Pro by using a USB-A to USB-C cable. The back of the keyboard includes two additional USB-A ports for a thumb drive, mouse, or a DaVinci Resolve license key (“dongle”). The keyboard is wider than a standard extended keyboard due to dedicated edit keys on the left and the search dial on the right. It has a replaceable wrist rest on the front edge and adjustable feet to elevate the keyboard angle.

The Cut Page

The Editor Keyboard is optimized for the cut and edit pages. It does work as a standard keyboard in the color, Fairlight, and Fusion pages. However, I found the dial operation in those modes to be rather finicky. Outside of DaVinci Resolve, it’s a generic QWERTY keyboard, but the special edit keys and dial will not work with other editing software.

It’s hard to talk about the keyboard without delving into the cut page. While the keyboard works effectively and correctly in the edit page, you’ll still find yourself needing the mouse, which defeats the purpose. In short, the design motivation is fast editing where your hands never leave the keyboard. That ideal plays out best in the cut page and the two have been developed in tandem.

While the DaVinci Resolve cut page shares many similarities to Apple’s Final Cut Pro X, Blackmagic Design software engineers added a number of unique functions that improve editing speed. The best of these is the source tape view. The bin can be sorted by timecode, camera, duration, or name order using dedicated keys and then viewed as if from a single source – essentially a virtual string-out. Quickly scroll through the footage using the search dial as effortlessly as using the FCPX skimming function. Large, dedicated buttons for source and timeline, in and out, and sort methods make for easy navigation and quick assembly. Smart edit and special function buttons, such as the unique “close-up” button (automatically does a basic punch-in of high-res footage), round out the picture.

The cut page itself has a number of other unique features that are beyond the scope of this article. Nevertheless, one unique tool that is worth mentioning is the dual timeline view. The timeline pane is divided into a top mini-display of the full timeline, while the lower area always shows the zoomed-in section of the timeline at the current time indicator (cursor). You never have to zoom in and zoom out to navigate your timeline. The search dial makes it a breeze to quickly scroll through the full timeline (top) and then hit the jog key to zero in on the frame you want (bottom).

Trimming is where the dial shines. Dedicated keys quickly select in-point, out-point, roll, slip, or slide trimming. Simply hit the key and DaVinci Resolve automatically jumps to the nearest cut point. Then use the search dial for the rest. As you adjust the head or tail of a cut the rest of the timeline ripples accordingly. It’s one of the best trim models of any NLE.

Some additional thoughts

I do have a few quibbles. Trim functions in the cut and edit pages are inconsistent with each other. The cut page uses a similar model to FCPX, where audio and video from the clip are combined into a single timeline clip rather than on separate tracks. Unfortunately, Blackmagic Design has yet to implement a way to expand a/v clips and perform L-cut or J-cut trimming on the cut page. You’ll have to shift to the edit page to perform those.

This is a right-handed device, so left-handed editors will have the same dilemma that left-handed guitar players encounter. In addition, these are imprinted keycaps based on DaVinci Resolve’s default keyboard map. If you use a custom layout or one of the other keyboard maps that DaVinci Resolve offers, then the QWERTY command portion of the keyboard becomes less useful.

The search dial will not override the J-K-L or the space bar play commands. In order to jog once the sequence is playing, you must first hit the K key or the space bar to stop playback before you can properly jog through frames. Otherwise, playback continues the minute you let go of the dial.

Conclusion

This keyboard is addictive. But, is its $995 (USD) price tag justified? That’s steep, but many plastic gaming keyboards can run up to $200 and some even $500. That’s without any extra pointers, dials, or keys. I’ve also found precision metal keyboards with force-sensitive pointers as high as $3,000. Given that, Blackmagic Design may be in the right ballpark. Just like control surfaces for grading or mixing, this keyboard isn’t for everyone. If you are already a fast, keyboard-oriented editor, then the DaVinci Resolve Editor Keyboard may not make you faster. Likewise, a Final Cut Pro X editor who flies by skimming with a mouse is also going to have a hard time justifying the expense, not to mention a shift to a different application.

This keyboard is designed for DaVinci Resolve editors and not colorists. It’s for facilities that intend to deploy DaVinci Resolve as their full-time editing application. I could easily see DaVinci Resolve and this keyboard used in a fast turnaround edit environment, like broadcast news. Under that scenario, it will certainly enhance speed and workflow, especially for editors who want to make the most out of the new cut page.

Originally written for RedShark News.

Be sure to also check out Scott Simmons’ review at ProVideoCoalition.

©2019 Oliver Peters

NAB Show 2019

This year the NAB Show seemed to emphasize its roots – the “B” in National Association of Broadcasters. Gone or barely visible were the fads of past years, such as stereoscopic 3D, 360-degree video, virtual/augmented reality, drones, etc. Not that these are gone – merely that they have refocused on the smaller segment of marketshare that reflects reality. There’s not much point in promoting stereo 3D at NAB if most of the industry goes ‘meh’.

Big exhibitors of the past, like Quantel, RED, Apple, and Autodesk, are gone from the floor. Quantel products remain as part of Grass Valley (now owned by Belden), which is the consolidation of Grass Valley Group, Quantel, Snell & Wilcox, and Philips. RED decided last year that small, camera-centric shows were better venues. Apple – well, they haven’t been on the main floor for years, but even this year, there was no off-site, Final Cut Pro X stealth presence in a hotel suite somewhere. Autodesk, which shifted to a subscription model a couple of years ago, had a demo suite in the nearby Renaissance Hotel, focusing on its hero product, Flame 2020. Smoke for Mac users – tough luck. It’s been over for years.

This was a nuts-and-bolts year, with many exhibits showing new infrastructure products. These appeal to larger customers, such as broadcasters and network facilities. Specifically the world is shifting to an IP-based infrastructure for signal routing, control, and transmission. This replaces copper and fiber wiring of the past, along with the devices (routers, video switchers, etc) at either end of the wire. Companies that might have appeared less relevant, like Grass Valley, are back in a strong sales position. Other companies, like Blackmagic Design, are being encouraged by their larger clients to fulfill those needs. And as ever, consolidation continues – this year VizRT acquired NewTek, who has been an early player in video-over-IP with their proprietary NDI protocol.

Adobe

The NAB season unofficially started with Adobe’s pre-NAB release of the CC2019 update. For editors and designers, the hallmarks of this update include a new, freeform bin window view and adjustable guides in Premiere Pro and content-aware, video fill in After Effects. These are solid additions in response to customer requests, which is something Adobe has focused on. A smaller, but no less important feature is Adobe’s ongoing effort to improve media performance on the Mac platform.

As in past years, their NAB booth was an opportunity to present these new features in-depth, as well as showcase speakers who use Adobe products for editing, sound, and design. Part of the editing team from the series Atlanta was on hand to discuss the team’s use of Premiere Pro and After Effects in their ‘editing crash pad’.

Avid

For many attendees, NAB actually kicked off on the weekend with Avid Connect, a gathering of Avid users (through the Avid Customer Association), featuring meet-and-greets, workshops, presentations, and ACA leadership committee meetings. While past product announcements at Connect have been subdued from the vantage of Media Composer editors, this year was a major surprise. Avid revealed its Media Composer 2019.5 update (scheduled for release the end of May). This came as part of a host of many updates. Most of these apply to companies that have invested in the full Avid ecosystem, including Nexis storage and Media Central asset management. While those are superb, they only apply to a small percentage of the market. Let’s not forget Avid’s huge presence in the audio world, thanks to the dominance of Pro Tools – now with Dolby ATMOS support. With the acquisition of Euphonix years back, Avid has become a significant player in the live and studio sound arena. Various examples of its S-series consoles in action were presented.

Since I focus on editing, let me discuss Media Composer a bit more. The 2019.5 refresh is the first major Media Composer overhaul in years. It started in secret last year. 2019.5 is the first iteration of the new UI, with more to be updated in coming releases. In short, the interface has been modernized and streamlined in ways to attract newer, younger users, without alienating established editors. Its panel design is similar to Adobe’s approach – i.e. interface panels can be docked, floated, stacked, or tabbed. Panels that you don’t want to see may be closed or simply slid to the side and hidden. Need to see a hidden panel again? Simply side it back open from the edge of the screen.

This isn’t just a new skin. Avid has overhauled the internal video pipeline, with 32-bit floating color and an uncompressed DNx codec. Project formats now support up to 16K. Avid is also compliant with the specs of the Netflix Post Alliance and the ACES logo program.

I found the new version very easy to use and a welcomed changed; however, it will require some adaptation if you’ve been using Media Composer for a long time. In a nod to the Media Composer heritage, the weightlifter (aka ‘liftman’) and scissors icons (for lift and extract edits) are back. Even though Media Composer 2019.5 is just in early beta testing, Avid felt good enough about it to use this version in its workshops, presentations, and stage demos.

One of the reasons to go to NAB is for the in-person presentations by top editors about their real-world experiences. No one can top Avid at this game, who can easily tap a host of Oscar, Emmy, BFTA, and Eddie award winners. The hallmark for many this year was the presentation at Avid Connect and/or at the show by the Oscar-winning picture and sound editing/mixing team for Bohemian Rhapsody. It’s hard not to gather a standing-room-only crowd when you close your talk with the Live Aid finale sequence played in kick-ass surround!

Blackmagic Design

Attendees and worldwide observers have come to expect a surprise NAB product announcement out of Grant Petty each year and he certainly didn’t disappoint this time. Before I get into that, there were quite a few products released, including for IP infrastructures, 8K production and post, and more. Blackmagic is a full spectrum video and audio manufacturer that long ago moved into the ‘big leagues’. This means that just like Avid or Grass Valley, they have to respond to pressure from large users to develop products designed around their specific workflow needs. In the BMD booth, many of those development fruits were on display, like the new Hyperdeck Extreme 8K HDR recorder and the ATEM Constellation 8K switcher.

The big reveal for editors was DaVinci Resolve 16. Blackmagic has steadily been moving into the editorial space with this all-in-one, edit/color/mix/effects/finishing application. If you have no business requirement for – or emotional attachment to – one of the other NLE brands, then Resolve (free) or Resolve Studio (paid) is an absolute no-brainer. Nothing can touch the combined power of Resolve’s feature set.

New for Resolve 16 is an additional editorial module called the Cut Page. At first blush, the design, layout, and operation are amazingly similar to Apple’s Final Cut Pro X. Blackmagic’s intent is to make a fast editor where you can start and end your project for a time-sensitive turnaround without the complexities of the Edit Page. However, it’s just another tool, so you could work entirely in the Cut Page, or start in the Cut Page and refine your timeline in the Edit Page, or skip the Cut Page all together. Resolve offers a buffet of post tools that are at your disposal.

While Resolve 16’s Cut Page does elicit a chuckle from experienced FCPX users, it offers some new twists. For example, there’s a two-level timeline view – the top section is the full-length timeline and the bottom section is the zoomed-in detail view. The intent is quick navigation without the need to constantly zoom in and out of long timelines. There’s also an automatic sync detection function. Let’s say you are cutting a two-camera show. Drop the A-camera clips onto the timeline and then go through your B-camera footage. Find a cut-away shot, mark in/out on the source, and edit. It will ‘automagically’ edit to the in-sync location on the timeline. I presume this is matched by either common sound or timecode. I’ll have to see how this works in practice, but it demos nicely. Changes to other aspects of Resolve were minor and evolutionary, except for one other notable feature. The Color Page added its own version of content-aware, video fill.

Another editorial product addition – tied to the theme of faster, more-efficient editing – was a new edit keyboard. Anyone who’s ever cut in the linear days – especially those who ran Sony BVE9000/9100 controllers – will feel very nostalgic. It’s a robust keyboard with a high-quality, integrated jog/shuttle knob. The feel is very much like controlling a tape deck in a linear system, with fast shuttle response and precise jogging. The precision is far better than any of the USB controllers, like a Contour Shuttle. Whether or not enough people will have interest in shelling out $1,025 for it awaits to be seen. It’s a great tool, but are you really faster with one, than with FCPX’s skimming and a standard keyboard and mouse?

Ironically, if you look around the Blackmagic Design booth there does seem to be a nostalgic homage to Sony hardware of the past. As I said, the edit keyboard is very close to a BVE9100 keyboard. Even the style of the control panel on the Hyperdecks – and the look of the name badges on those panels – is very much Sony’s style. As humans, this appeals to our desire for something other than the glass interfaces we’ve been dealing with for the past few years. Michael Cioni (Panavision, Light Iron) coined this as ‘tactile attraction’ in his excellent Faster Together Stage talk. It manifests itself not only in these type of control surfaces, but also in skeuomorphic designs applied to audio filter interfaces. Or in the emotion created in the viewer when a colorist adds film grain to digital footage.

Maybe Grant is right and these methods are really faster in a pressure-filled production environment. Or maybe this is simply an effort to appeal to emotion and nostalgia by Blackmagic’s designers. (Check out Grant Petty’s two-hour 2019 Product Overview for more in-depth information on Blackmagic Design’s new products.)

8K

I won’t spill a lot of words on 8K. Seems kind of silly when most delivery is HD and even SD in some places. A lot of today’s production is in 4K, but really only for future-proofing. But the industry has to sell newer and flashier items, so they’ve moved on to 8K pixel resolution (7680 x 4320). Much of this is driven by Japanese broadcast and manufacturer efforts, who are pushing into 8K. You can laugh or roll your eyes, but NAB had many examples of 8K production tools (cameras and recorders) and display systems. Of course, it’s NAB, making it hard to tell how many of these are only prototypes and not yet ready for actual production and delivery.

For now, it’s still a 4K game, with plenty of mainstream product. Not only cameras and NLEs, but items like AJA’s KiPro family. The KiPro Ultra Plus records up to four channels of HD or one channel of 4K in ProRes or DNx. The newest member of the family is the KiPro GO, which records up to four channels of HD (25Mbps H.264) onto removable USB media.

Of course, the industry never stops, so while we are working with HD and 4K, and looking at 8K, the developers are planning ahead for 16K. As I mentioned, Avid already has project presets built-in for 16K projects. Yikes!

HDR

HDR – or high dynamic range – is about where it was last year. There are basically four formats vying to become the final standard used in all production, post, and display systems. While there are several frontrunners and edicts from distributors to deliver HDR-compatible masters, there still is no clear path. In you shoot in log or camera raw with nearly any professional camera produced within the past decade, you have originated footage that is HDR-compatible. But none of the low-cost post solutions make this easy. Without the right monitoring environment, you are wasting your time. If anything, those waters are muddier this year. There were a number of HDR displays throughout the show, but there were also a few labelled as using HDR simulation. I saw a couple of those at TV Logic. Yes, they looked gorgeous and yes, they were receiving an HDR signal. I found out that the ‘simulation’ part of the description meant that the display was bright (up to 350 nits), but not bright enough to qualify as ‘true’ HDR (1,000 nits or higher).

As in past transitions, we are certainly going to have to rely on a some ‘glue’ products. For me, that’s AJA again. Through their relationship with Colorfront, AJA offers two FS-HDR products: the HDR Image Analyzer and the FS-HDR convertor. The latter was introduced last year as a real-time frame synchronizer and color convertor to go between SDR and HDR display standards.  The new Analyzer is designed to evaluate color space and gamut compliance. Just remember, no computer display can properly show you HDR, so if you need to post and delivery HDR, proper monitoring and analysis tools are essential.

Cameras

I’m not a cinematographer, but I do keep up with cameras. Nearly all of this year’s camera developments were evolutionary: new LF (large format sensor) cameras (ARRI), 4K camcorders (Sharp, JVC), a full-frame mirrorless DSLR from Nikon (with ProRes RAW recording coming in a future firmware update). Most of the developments were targeted towards live broadcast production, like sports and megachurches.  Ikegami had an 8K camera to show, but their real focus was on 4K and IP camera control.

RED, a big player in the cinema space, was only there in a smaller demo room, so you couldn’t easily compare their 8K imagery against others on the floor, but let’s not forget Sony and Panasonic. While ARRI has been a favorite, due to the ‘look’ of the Alexa, Sony (Venice) and Panasonic (Varicam and now EVA-1) are also well-respected digital cinema tools that create outstanding images. For example, Sony’s booth featured an amazing, theater-sized, LED 8K micro-pixel display system. Some of the sample material shown was of the Rio Carnival, shot with anamorphic lenses on a 6K full-frame Sony Venice camera. Simply stunning.

Finally, let’s not forget Canon’s line-up of cinema cameras, from the C100 to the C700FF. To complement these, Canon introduced their new line of Sumire Prime lenses at the show. The C300 has been a staple of documentary films, including the Oscar-winning film, Free Solo, which I had the pleasure of watching on the flight to Las Vegas. Sweaty palms the whole way. It must have looked awesome in IMAX!

(For more on RED, cameras, and lenses at NAB, check out this thread from DP Phil Holland.)

It’s a wrap

In short, NAB 2019 had plenty for everyone. This also included smaller markets, like products for education seminars. One of these that I ran across was Cinamaker. They were demonstrating a complete multi-camera set-up using four iPhones and an iPad. The iPhones are the cameras (additional iPhones can be used as isolated sound recorders) and the iPad is the ‘switcher/control room’. The set-up can be wired or wireless, but camera control, video switching, and recording is done at the iPad. This can generate the final product, or be transferred to a Mac (with the line cut and camera iso media, plus edit list) for re-editing/refinement in Final Cut Pro X. Not too shabby, given the market that Cinamaker is striving to address.

For those of us who like to use the NAB Show exhibit floor as a miniature yardstick for the industry, one of the trends to watch is what type of gear is used in the booths and press areas. Specifically, one NLE over another, or one hardware platform versus the other. On that front, I saw plenty of Premiere Pro, along with some Final Cut Pro X. Hardware-wise, it looked like Apple versus HP. Granted, PC vendors, like HP, often supply gear to use in the booths as a form of sponsorship, so take this with a grain of salt. Nevertheless, I would guess that I saw more iMac Pros than any other single computer. For PCs, it was a mix of HP Z4, Z6, and Z8 workstations. HP and AMD were partner-sponsors of Avid Connect and they demoed very compelling set-ups with these Z-series units configured with AMD Radeon cards. These are very powerful workstations for editing, grading, mixing, and graphics.

©2019 Oliver Peters

Blackmagic Design eGPU Pro

Last year Apple embraced external graphics processing units. Blackmagic Design responded with the release of its AMD-powered eGPU model. Many questioned their choice of the Radeon Pro 580 chip instead of something more powerful. That challenge has been answered with the new Blackmagic eGPU Pro. It sports the Radeon RX Vega 56 – a similar model to the one inside the base iMac Pro configuration. The two eGPU models are nearly identical in design, but in addition to more processing power, the eGPU Pro adds a DisplayPort connection that can support 5K monitors.

The eGPU Pro includes two Thunderbolt 3/USB-C ports with 85W charging capability, HMDI, DisplayPort, and four USB-A type connectors for standard USB-3.1 devices. This means you can connect multiple peripherals and displays, plus power your laptop. You’ll need a Thunderbolt 3 connection from the computer and then either eGPU model becomes plug-and-play with Mojave (macOS 10.14) or later.

Setting up the eGPU Pro

With Mojave, most current creative apps, like Final Cut Pro X, Premiere Pro, Resolve, etc. offer a preference selection to always use the eGPU (when connected) from the application’s Get Info panel. This is an “either/or” choice. The application does not combine the power of both GPUs for maximum performance. When you pull up the Activity Monitor, you can easily see that the internal GPU is loafing while the eGPU Pro does the heavy lifting during tasks such as rendering. External GPUs benefit Macs with low-end, built-in GPUs, like the 13″ MacBook Pro or the Mac mini. A Blackmagic eGPU or eGPU Pro wouldn’t provide an edge to the render times of an iMac Pro, for example. It wouldn’t be worth the investment, unless you need one to connect additional high-resolution displays.

Users who are unfamiliar with external GPUs assume that the advantage is in faster export and render times, but that’s only part of the story. Not every function of an application uses the GPU, so many factors determine rendering. External GPU technology is very much about real-time image output. An eGPU will allow more connected displays of higher resolutions than an underpowered Mac would normally support on its own. The eGPU will also improve real-time playback of effects-heavy timelines. So yes, editors will get faster exports, but they will also enjoy a more fluid editing experience.

Extending the power of the Mac mini

In my Mac mini review, I concluded that a fully-loaded configuration made for a very capable editing computer. However, if you tend to use a number of effects that lean on GPU power, you will see an impact on real-time playback. For example, with the standard Intel GPU, I could add color correction, gaussian blur, and a title, and playback was generally fine with a fast drive. But, when I added a mask to the blur, it quickly dropped frames during playback. Once I connected the eGPU Pro to this same Mac Mini, such timelines played fluidly and, in fact, more effects could be layered onto clips. As in my other tests, Final Cut Pro X performed the best, but Premiere Pro and Resolve also performed solidly.

For basic rendering, I tested the same sequence that I used in the Mac mini review. This is a 9:15-long 1080p timeline made up of 4K source clips in a variety of codecs, plus scaling and color correction. I exported ProRes and H.264 master files from FCPX, Premiere Pro, and Resolve. With the eGPU Pro, times were cut in the range of 12% (FCPX) to 54% (Premiere). An inherently fast renderer, like Final Cut, gained the least by percentage, as it already exhibited the fastest times overall. Premiere Pro saw the greatest gain from the addition of the eGPU Pro. This is a major improvement over last year when Premiere didn’t seem to take much advantage of the eGPU. Presumably both Apple and Adobe have optimized performance when an eGPU is present.

Most taxing tests

A timeline export test is real-world but may or may not tax a GPU. So, I set up a specific render test for that purpose. I created a :60 6K timeline (5760×3240) composed of a nine-screen composite of 4K clips scaled into nine 1920×1080 sections. Premiere Pro would barely play this at even 1/16th resolution using only the Intel. With the eGPU Pro, it generally played at 1/2 resolution. This was exported to a final 1080 ProRes file. During my base test (without the eGPU connected) Premiere Pro took over 31 minutes with “maximum quality” selected. A standard quality export was about eight minutes, while Final Cut Pro X took five minutes. Once I re-connected the eGPU Pro, the same timelines exported in 3:20 under all three test scenarios. That’s a whopping 90% reduction in time for the most taxing condition! One last GPU-centric test was the BruceX test, which has been devised for Final Cut. The result without the eGPU was :58, but an impressive :16 when the eGPU Pro was used.

As you can see, effects-heavy work will benefit from the eGPU Pro, not only in faster renders and exports, but also improved real-time editing. This is also true of Resolve timelines with many nodes and in other graphics applications, like Pixelmater Pro. The 2018 Mac mini is a capable mid-range system when you purchase it with the advanced options. Nevertheless, users who need that extra grunt will definitely see a boost from the addition of a Blackmagic eGPU Pro.

Originally written for RedShark News.

©2019 Oliver Peters