Easy 4K Workflow

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In the last post I questioned the visual value of 4K. However, it’s inevitable that more and more distributors will be asking for 4K deliverables, so you might as well start planning how you are going to achieve that. There are certainly plenty of demos showing how easy it is to edit 4K content and they use iPhone video for the demo material. The reality is that such footage is crap and should only be used when it’s the only camera available. At the low end, there are plenty of cameras to choose from that work with highly-compressed 4K images and yet, yield great results. The Blackmagic Design URSA Mini, Sony FS7 and Canon C300 Mark II come to mind. Bump up to something in a more cinema-style package and you are looking at a Sony F55, RED, ARRI or even the AJA CION.

df1816_easy_4k_1While many cameras record to various proprietary compressed codecs, having a common media codec is the most ideal. Typically this means Apple ProRes or Avid DNxHD/HR. Some cameras and standalone monitor/recorders can natively generate media in these formats. In other circumstances, it requires an interim transcode before editing. This is where system throughput becomes a big issue. For example, if you want to work with native 4K material as ProRes 4444, you are going to need fast drives. On my home Mac Pro tower, I have two internal 7200RPM spinning drives for media striped as RAID-0. In addition to these and the boot drive, I also have another internal SSD media drive. When I checked their relative performance with the AJA System Test utility, these clocked at 161 write /168 read for the RAID-0 stripe and 257/266 for the single SSD. That’s good enough for approximately 27fps and 43fps respectively, if the media were large 3840 x 2160 (2160p) ProRes 4444 files. In other words, both drive units are adequate for a single stream of 2160p/23.98 as ProRes 4444, but would have a tougher time with two streams or more.

Unfortunately the story doesn’t end with drive performance alone, because some NLEs handle real-time playback of 4K media better than do others. I’ve performed a number of tests with 4K files in Apple Final Cut Pro X, Adobe Premiere Pro CC, Avid Media Composer and Blackmagic Design DaVinci Resolve. This has been on a number of different units, including a couple of Mac Pro towers, as well as a newer “trash can” Mac Pro. Plus, I’ve run tests with local drives, attached media RAIDs, and network-attached storage systems. What I’ve found is that as long as you have fast drive performance, then the bottleneck is the NLE.

Pretty much all of these choices can handle a single stream of 4K media without too much of an issue. However, when you stack up a second layer or track for a simple 2D PIP composite, generally the system struggles. In some cases, FCPX has performed better than the others, but not consistently.  The others all choked to varying degrees. When you limit it to a single stream of 4K video with associated audio, then FCPX performs more fluidly at a higher quality level than Media Composer or Premiere Pro, although Media Composer also performed well in some of the tests. My conclusion, for now, is that if you want to work with native 4K media in a client-involved session, and with the least amount of rendering, then FCPX is the clear winner – at least on the Mac platform. For many editors it will be the most viable choice.

Native workflow

The first big plus for Final Cut Pro X is how easily it works with native media that it’s compatible with. That’s one thing I don’t generally advocate on a large project like a show or feature film – opting instead to create “optimized” media first, either externally or within FCPX. Nevertheless, a lot of native codecs can be quite easy on the system. For example, one client cut an indie feature, using all native camera files from his Sony FS7. His Final Cut system was a tricked out iMac that was a couple of years old and a Promise Pegasus RAID array. Initially he cut the film from native 4K FS7 files to an FCPX 1080p timeline. I was doing the grading in Resolve, so I had him export a single, flattened movie file from the timeline as 1080p ProRes 4444. I brought this into Resolve, “bladed” the cuts to create edit points and applied my color correction. I exported a single ProRes 4444 master file, which he could import back into FCPX and marry with the post-production mix.

df1816_easy_4k_2Fast forward a year and the film distributor was inquiring whether they could easily produce a 4K master instead of a 1080 master. This turned out to be relatively simple. All my client had to do was change his FCPX project (timeline) settings to 4K, double-check the scaling for his clips and export a new 4K ProRes 4444 file of the timeline. In Resolve, I also changed the timeline setting to 4K and then relinked to the new 4K file. Voila! – all the cuts lined up and the previous grades all looked fine. Then I simply exported the graded 4K file to send back to the client.

In this example, even with a roundtrip to Resolve and a change from 1080p to 2160p, FCPX performed perfectly without much fuss. However, for many, you wouldn’t even need to go this far. Depending on how much you like to play and tweak during the color grade, there are plenty of ways to do this and stay totally inside FCPX. You could use tools like the Color Board, Hawaiki Color, Color Finale, or even some home-brew Motion effects, and achieve excellent results without ever leaving Final Cut Pro X.

As a reminder, Media Composer, Premiere Pro CC and Resolve are all capable of working with native media, including 4K.

Proxy workflow

df1816_easy_4k_4In addition to native 4K post, Apple engineers built an ingenious internal proxy workflow into Final Cut. Transcode the camera files in the background, flip a toggle, and work with the proxy files until you are ready to export a master. When you opt to transcode proxies, FCPX generates half-resolution, ProRes Proxy media corresponding to your original files. As an example, if your media consists of 2160p XAVC camera files, FCPX creates corresponding 1080p ProRes Proxy files. Even though the proxy media’s frame is 1/4th the size of the 4K original, FCPX takes care of handling the scaling math in the timeline between original and proxy media. The viewer display will also appear very close in quality, regardless of whether you have switched to original/optimized or proxy media. The majority of legacy A/V output cards, like a Blackmagic Design Decklink, are only capable of displaying SD and HD content to an external monitor. FCPX can send it the proper data so that a 4K timeline is displayed as a scaled 1080 output to your external video monitor.

Although proxies are small for a 4K project, these are still rather large to be moving around among multiple editors. It’s not an official part of the Final Cut operation, but you can replace these generated proxies with your own versions, with some caveats. Let’s say you have 3840 x 2160, log-gamma-encoded, 4K camera files. You would first need to have FCPX generate proxies. However, using an external application such as EditReady, Compressor, etc, you could transcode these camera files into small 960×540 ProRes Proxy media, complete with a LUT applied and timecode/clip name burnt in. Then find your Proxy Media folder, trash the FCPX-generated files and replace them with your own files. FCPX should properly relink to these and understand the correct relationship between the original and the proxy files. (This post explains the process in more detail.) There are several caveats. Clip name, frame rate, clip length, aspect ratio, and audio channel configurations must match. Otherwise you are good to go.df1816_easy_4k_3

The benefit to this solution is that you can freely edit with the proxies on a lightweight system, such as a MacBook Pro with a portable drive. When ready, move back to a beefier unit and storage, flip to original/optimized media, double-check all effects and color-correction on a good monitor, and then export the master files. It’s worth noting that this workflow is also potentially possible with Premiere Pro CC, because the new version to be introduced later this year will include a proxy editing workflow.

Naturally there is no single solution, but Final Cut Pro X makes this process far easier than any other tool that I use. If 4K is increasingly looming on the horizon for you, then FCPX is certainly worth a test run.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Automatic Duck Xsend Motion

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When Apple transitioned its Final Cut Pro product family from Final Cut Studio to Final Cut Pro X, Motion 5, and Compressor 4, it lost a number of features that editors really liked. Some of these “missing” features show up as consistent and reoccurring requests on various wish lists. One of the most popular is the roundtrip function that sent Final Cut Pro “classic” timelines over to Motion for further compositing. To many, it seemed like Motion had become relegated to being a fancy development tool for FCPX plug-ins, rather than what it is – a powerful, GPU-enabled compositor.

df1516_AD_2At last, that workflow hole has been plugged, thanks to Automatic Duck. Last year the father/son development team brought us a way to go from Final Cut Pro X to Adobe’s After Effects by way of the Automatic Duck Ximport AE bridge. This week at the FCP Exchange Workshop in Las Vegas, Wes Plate reveals the new Automatic Duck Xsend Motion. This tool leverages the power of the FCPX’s version of XML to move data from one application to the other. Thanks to FCPXML, it provides a bridge to send FCPX timelines, clips, or sections of timelines over to Motion 5.

df1516_AD_4Xsend Motion reads FCPXML exports or is able to process projects directly from the Final Cut Pro X Share menu. The Xsend menu enables a number of settings options, including whether to bring clips into Motion as individual clips or as what Automatic Duck has dubbed as “lanes”. When clips are left individual, then each clip is assigned a layer in Motion for a composition made up of a series of cascading layers. If you opt for lanes, then the Motion layers stay grouped in a similar representation to the FCPX project timeline. This way primary and secondary storylines and connected clips are properly configured. Xsend also interprets compound clips.

Automatic Duck is striving to correctly interpret all of the FCPX characteristics, including frame sizes, rates, cropping, and more. Since Final Cut Pro X and Motion 5 are essentially built upon the same engine, the translation will correctly interpret most built-in effects. However, it may or may not interpret custom Motion templates that individual users have created. In addition, they plan on being able to properly translate many of the effects in the FxFactory portfolio, which typically install into both FCPX and Motion.

df1516_AD_3While Xsend Motion and Ximport AE are primarily one-way trips, there is a mechanism to send the finished result back to Final Cut Pro X from Motion 5. The first and most obvious is simply to render the Motion composition as a flattened QuickTime movie and import that back into FCPX as new media. However, you can also publish the Motion composition as an FCPX Generator. This would then show up in the Generators portion of the Effects Palette as a custom generator effect.

Automatic Duck Xsend Motion will be officially released later this year. The price hasn’t been announced yet. Current Automatic Duck products (Automatic Duck Ximport AE and Automatic Duck Media Copy) are available through Red Giant.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Spring Tools

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It’s often the little things that improve your editing workflow. Here are a few quick items that can expand your editing arsenal.

Hawaiki Super Dissolve

df1416_tools_3The classical approach to editing transitions suggests that all you need is a cut and a dissolve. Given how often most editors use a dissolve transition, it’s amazing that few NLE developers spend any time creating more than a basic video dissolve, fade or dip. After all, even the original Media Composer came with both a video and a film-style dissolve. Audio mixers are used to several different types of crossfades.

Since this is such a neglected area, the development team behind the Hawaiki plug-ins decided to create Super Dissolve – a dissolve transition plug-in for Final Cut Pro X with many more options. This installs through the FxFactory application. It shows up in the FCPX transitions palette as a dissolve effect, plus a set of presets for fades, dips and custom curves. A dissolve is nothing more than a blend between two images, so Super Dissolve exposes the same types of under-the-hood controls as After Effects and Photoshop artists are used to with compositing modes.

Drop the Super Dissolve in as a transition and you have control over blending modes, layer order, easing controls with timing, and the blurring of the outgoing and/or incoming image. Since you have control over the outgoing and incoming clips separately, different values can be applied to either side, thus enabling an asymmetrical effect. For example, a quick fade with a blur off the outgoing clip, while bringing the incoming side up more slowly. As with the default FCPX dissolve, there’s also an audio crossfade adjustment, since FCPX transitions can effect both audio and video when these elements are combined. If you really like the ability to finesse your transitions, then Super Dissolve hits the spot.

XEffects Audio Fades

df1416_tools_6Free is good, so check out Idustrial Revolution’s free effects. Although they are primarily a video effects developer for Motion and Final Cut Pro X, they recently added a set of audio fade presets for FCPX. Download and install the free pack and you’ll find the XEffects Fades group in the audio plug-ins section of your effects palette.

XEffects Fades includes a set of preset fade handles, which are applied to the audio on your timeline clips. Drag-and-drop the preset with the fade length closest to what you want and it automatically adjusts the fade handle length at both ends of that audio clip. If you want to tweak the length, apply the effect first and then adjust the length puck on the clip as needed. Existing lengths will be overwritten when you drop the effect onto the clip, so make sure you make these adjustments last.

AudioDenoise and EchoRemover

df1416_tools_5CrumplePop is another developer known for its video effects; but they, too have decided to add audio effects to their repertoire. AudioDenoise and EchoRemover are two Final Cut Pro X plug-ins sold through the FxFactory application. These two effects are easy-to-use Apple Audio Units filters designed to improve poorly recorded location audio. As with Apple’s own built-in controls, each filter includes a few sliders to adjust strength and how the effect is applied. When applying any audio “clean up” filter, a little goes a long way. If you use it to its extreme range, the result sounds like you are underwater. Nevertheless, these two filters do a very nice job with poor audio, without presenting the cost and complexity of other well-known audio products.

Alex4D Animated Transitions

df1416_tools_1For a little bit of spice in your Final Cut Pro X timelines, it’s worth checking out the Alex4D Animated Transitions from FxFactory. Alex Gollner has been a prolific developer of free Final Cut Pro plug-ins, but this is his first commercial effort. Animated Transitions are a set of 120 customizable transition effects to slide, grow, split and peel incoming or outgoing clips and lower third titles. Traditionally you’d have to build these effects yourself using DVE moves. But by dropping one of these effects onto a cut point between two clips, you quickly apply a dynamic effect with all the work already done. Simply pick the transition you like, tweak the parameters and it’s done.

Post Notes

df1416_tools_4One of the best features of Adobe applications is Extensions. This is a development “hook” within Premiere Pro or After Effects that allows developers to create task-oriented panels, tools and controls that effectively “bolt” right into the Adobe interface. One example for After Effects would be TypeMonkey (and the other “Monkeys”), which are kinetic effect macros. For Premiere there’s PDFviewer, which enables you to view your script (or any other document) in PDF format right inside the Premiere user interface.

A new extension for Premiere Pro CC is Post Notes. Once installed, it’s an interface panel within Premiere Pro that functions as a combined notepad and to-do list. These are tied to a specific sequence, so you can have a set of notes and to-dos for each sequence in your project. When a to-do item is completed, check it off to indicate that it’s been addressed. This tool is so straightforward and simple, you’ll wonder why every editing software doesn’t already have something like this built-in.

Hedge for Mac

df1416_tools_2With digital media as a way of life for most editors, we have to deal with more and more camera media. Quickly copying camera cards is a necessary evil and making sure you do this without corruption is essential. The Mac Finder really is NOT the tool you should be using, yet everyone does it. There are a number of products on the market that copy to multiple locations with checksum verification. These are popular with DITs and “data wranglers” and include Pomfort Silverstack, Red Giant Offload, and even Adobe Prelude.

A newcomer is Hedge for Mac. This is a simple, single-purpose utility designed to quickly copy files and verify the copies. There’s a free and a paid version. If you just want to copy to one or two destinations at a time, the free version will do. If you need even more destinations as a simultaneous copy, then go for the paid version. Hedge will also launch your custom AppleScripts to sort, transcode, rename or perform other functions. Transfers are fast in the testing I’ve done, so this is a must-have tool for any editors.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Adobe Premiere Pro CC Tips

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Adobe Premiere Pro CC is the dominant NLE that I encounter amongst my clients. Editors who’ve shifted over from Final Cut Pro “classic” may have simply transferred existing skills and working methods to Premiere Pro. This is great, but it’s easy to miss some of the finer points in Premiere Pro that will make you more productive. Here are seven tips that can benefit nearly any project.

df0616_ppro_1LUTs/Looks – With the addition of the Lumetri Color panel, it’s easy to add LUTs into your color correction workflow. You get there through the Color workspace preset or by applying a Lumetri Color effect to a timeline clip. Import a LUT from the Basic Correction or Creative section of the controls. From here, browse to any stored LUT on your hard drive(s) and it will be applied to the clip. There are plenty of free .cube LUTs floating around the web. However, you may not know that Look files, created through Adobe SpeedGrade CC in the .look format, may also be applied within the Creative section. You can also find a number of free ones on the web, including a set I created for SpeedGrade. Unlike LUTs, these also support effects used in SpeedGrade.

df0616_ppro_2Audio MixingPremiere Pro features very nice audio tools and internal audio mixing is a breeze. I typically use three filters on nearly every mix I create. First, I will add a basic dynamic compressor to all of my dialogue tracks. To keep it simple, I normally use the default preset. Second, I will add an EQ filter to my music tracks. Here, I will set it to notch out the midrange slightly, which lets the dialogue sit a bit better in the mix. Finally I’ll add limiting to the master track. Normally this is set to soft clip at -10db. If I have specific loudness specs as part of my delivery requirements, then I’ll route my mix through a submaster bus first and apply the limiting to the submaster. I will apply the RADAR loudness meter to the master bus and adjust accordingly to be compliant.

df0616_ppro_3Power windows – This is a term that came from DaVinci Resolve, but is often used generically to talk about building up a grade on a shot by isolating areas within the image. For example, brightening someone’s face more so than the overall image. You can do this in Premiere Pro by stacking up more than one Lumetri Color effect onto a clip. Start by applying a Lumetri Color effect and grade the overall shot. Next, apply a second instance of the effect and use the built-in Adobe mask tool to isolate only the selection that you want to add the second correction to, such as an oval around someone’s head. Tweak color as needed. If the shot moves around, you can even use the internal tracker to have your mask follow the object. Do you have another area to adjust? Simply add a third effect and repeat the process.

df0616_ppro_4Export/import titles – Premiere Pro titles are created in the Title Designer module and these titles can be exported as a separate metadata file (.prtl format). Let’s say that you have a bunch of titles that you plan to use repeatedly on new projects, but you don’t want to bring these in from one project to the next. You can do this more simply by exporting and re-importing the title’s data file. Simply select the title in the bin and then File/Export/Title. The hitch is that Adobe’s Media Browser will not recognize the .prtl format and so the easiest way to import it into a new project is to drag it from the Finder location straight into the new Premiere Pro project. This will create a new title inside of the new project. Both instances of this title are unique, so editing the title in any project won’t effect how it appears elsewhere.

df0616_ppro_5Replace with clip – I work on a number of productions where there’s a base version of a commercial and then a lot of versions with small changes to each. A typical example is a spot that uses many different lower third phone numbers, which are market-specific. The Replace function shaves hours off of this workflow. I first duplicate a completed sequence and rename it. Then I select the correct phone number in the bin, followed by selecting the clip in the timeline to be changed. Right-click and choose Replace with Clip/From Bin. This will update the content of my timeline clip with the new phone number. Any effects or keyframes that have been applied in the timeline remain.

df0616_ppro_6Optical flow speed changes – In a recent update, optical flow interpolation was added as one of the speed change choices. Other than the obvious uses of speed changes, I found this to be a get way of creating slower camera moves that look nearly perfect. Optical flow can be tricky – sometimes creating odd motion artifacts – and at other times it’s perfect. I have a camera slider move or pan along a mantle containing family photos. The move is too fast. So, yes, I can slow it down, but the horizontal motion will leave it as stuttering or blurred. However, if I slow it to exactly 50% and select optical flow, in most cases, I get very good results. That’s because this speed and optical flow have created perfect “in-between” frames. A :05 move is now :10 and works better in the edit. If I’m going to use this same clip a lot, I simply render/export it is as a new piece of media, which I’ll bring back into the project as if it were a VFX clip.

df0616_ppro_7Render and replace – Premiere Pro CC is great when you have a ton of different camera formats and want to work with native media. While that generally works, a large project will really impede performance, especially in the editing sequence. The alternative is to transcode the clips to an optimized or so-called mezzanine format. Adobe does this in the sequence rather than in the bin and it can be done for individual clips or every clip within the sequence. You might have a bunch of native 4K .mp4 camera clips in a 1080p timeline. Simply select the clips within the timeline that you would like to transcode and right-click for the Render and Replace dialogue. At this point you have a several options, including whether to use clip or sequence settings, handle length, codec, and file location. If you choose “clip”, then what you get is a new, trimmed clip in an optimized codec, which will be stored in a separate folder. This becomes a great way to consolidate your media. The clip is imported into your bin, so you have access to both the original and the optimized clip at the original settings. Therefore, your consolidated clips are still 4K if that’s how they started.

This also works for Dynamic Link After Effects compositions. Render and Replace those for better timeline performance. But if you need to go back to the composition in order to update it in After Effects, that’s just a few clicks away.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Telestream Switch

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For many editors, Apple QuickTime Player Pro (not QuickTime Player X) has been their go-to media player and encoding application. Since this is a discontinued piece of software and Apple is actively deprecating QuickTime with each new version of Mac OS X, it stands to reason that at some point QuickTime Player Pro will cease to function. Telestream – maker of the highly-regarded Episode encoder – plans to be ready with Switch.

Switch will run on Mac and Windows platforms and has steadily gained features since its product launch. (It is currently in version 1.6.) Switch is a multi-function media player that comes in three versions: Switch Player – a free, multi-format media player with file inspection capabilities; Switch Plus – to play, inspect, and fix media file issues; and, Switch Pro – a comprehensive file encoder. All Switch versions will play a wide range of media file formats and allow you to inspect the file properties, but only the Plus and Pro paid versions include encoding.

Building on its knowledge in developing Episode and its tight relationship with Apple, Telestream hopes to make Switch the all-purpose encoder of choice for most editors. The intent is for editors to use Switch where they would normally have used QuickTime Player Pro in the past. Unlike other open source media players, Telestream can play many professional media formats (like MXF), display embedded captions and subtitles, and properly encode to advanced file formats (like Apple ProRes). Since Switch Plus and Pro are designed for single-file processing, instead of batch encoding like Episode, their prices are also lower than that of Episode.

While the playback capabilities of Switch cover many formats, the encoding/export options are more limited. Switch Plus, which was added with version 1.6, can export MPEG-2, MPEG-4, and QuickTime (.mov) files. There’s also a pass-through mode in cases where files simply need to be rewrapped. For example, you might choose to convert Canon C300 clips from MXF into QuickTime movies, but maintain the native Canon XF codec. This might make it easier for a producer to review the media files before an upcoming edit session. Switch Plus also adds playback support for HEVC and MPEG-2 on windows, AC3 audio, and pro audio meters that display tru-peak and momentary loudness values.

Switch Pro includes all of the Plus features, as well as playback of Avid DNxHD, DNxHR, and JPEG 2000 files. It can encode in QuickTime (.mov), MPEG-4, and MPEG-2 (transport and program stream) containers. You can also export still frames and iTunes Store package formats. Codec encoding support includes H.264, MPEG-2, and ProRes. (ProRes export on Windows is ProRes HQ 4:2:2 for iTunes only.) While that’s more limited than Episode, Telestream plans to add more capabilities to Switch over time.

Switch Pro is more than an encoder, it also includes SDI out via AJA i/o devices (for preview to an external calibrated device), loudness monitoring, and caption playback. Even the free Player will pass audio out to speakers through AJA cards and USB-connected Core Audio devices. Unfortunately this does not appear to work when you have a Blackmagic Design card installed. Telestream has acknowledged this as a bug that it plans to fix in the 2.0 release later this year.

The goal for the Switch product line is to be a powerful and affordable visual QC tool, that you can also use it to make corrections to metadata, formats, audio, etc., and encode to a new file. Along with the usual inspection of file properties, Switch includes a set of audio meters that display volume and loudness readings. Although it does not offer audio and video adjustment or correction controls, you can re-arrange audio channels and speaker assignments. Telestream Switch is a very useful encoder, but if you just need a versatile media player and inspection tool, then you can easily start with the free player version.

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetworks.

©2015 Oliver Peters

Final Cut Pro X Organizing Tips

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Every nonlinear editing application is a database; however, Apple took this concept to a higher level when it launched Final Cut Pro X. One of its true strengths is making the organization of a mountain of media easier than ever. To get the best experience, an editor should approach the session holistically and not simply rely on FCP X to do all the heavy lifting.

At the start of every new production, I set up and work within a specific folder structure. You can use an application like Post Haste to create a folder layout, pick up some templates online, like those from FDPTraining, or simply create your own template. No matter how you get there, the main folder for that production should include subfolders for camera files, audio, graphics, other media, production documents, and projects. This last folder would include your FCP X library, as well as others, like any After Effects or Motion projects. The objective is to end up with everything that you accrue for this production in a single master folder that you can archive upon completion.

FCP X Libraries

df1415_organize_5It helps to understand the Final Cut Pro X Library structure. The Library is what would otherwise be called a project file, but in FCP X terminology an edited sequence is referred to as a Project, while the main session/production file is the Library. Unlike previous versions and other NLEs, the Library is not a closed, binary data file. It is a package file that you can open and peruse, by right-clicking the Library icon and using the “show package contents” command. In there you will find various binary files (labeled CurrentVersion.fcpevent) along with a number of media folders. This structure is similar to the way Avid Media Composer project folders are organized on a hard drive. Since FCP X allows you to store imported, proxy, transcoded, and rendered media within the Library package, the media folders can be filled with actual media used for this production. When you pick this option your Library will grow quite large, but is completely under the application’s control, thus making the media management quite robust.

df1415_organize_4Another option is to leave media files in their place. When this is selected the Library package’s media folders will contain aliases or shortcut links to the actual media files. These media files are located in one or more folders on your hard drive. In this case, your Library file will stay small and is easier to transfer between systems, since the actual audio and video files are externally located. I suggest spreading things out. For example, I’ll create my Library on one drive, the location of the autosaved back-up files on another, and my media on a third. This has the advantage of no single point of failure. If the Library files are located on a drive that is backed up via Time Machine or some other system-wide “cloud” back-up utility, you have even more redundancy and protection.

Following this practice, I typically do not place the Library file in the projects folder for the production, unless this is a RAID-5 (or better) drive array. If I don’t save it there during actual editing, then it is imperative to copy the Library into the project folder for archiving. The rub is that the package contains aliases, which certain software – particular LTO back-up software – does not like. My recommendation is to create a compressed archive (.zip) file for every project file (FCP X Library, AE project, Premiere Pro project, etc.) prior to the final archiving of that production. This will prevent conflicts caused by these aliases.

If you have set up a method of organization that saves Libraries into different folders for each production, it is still possible to have a single folder, which shows you all the Libraries on your drives. To do this, create a Smart Folder in the Finder and set up the criteria to filter for FCP X Libraries. Any Library will automatically be filtered into this folder with a shortcut. Clicking on any of these files will launch FCP X and open to that Library.

Getting started

df1415_organize_2The first level of organization is getting everything into the appropriate folders on the hard drive. Camera files are usually organized by shoot date/location, camera, and card/reel/roll. Mac OS lets you label files with color-coded Finder tags, which enables another level of organization for the editor. As an example, you might have three different on-camera speakers in a production. You could label clips for each with a colored tag. Another example, might be to label all “circle takes” picked by the director in the field with a tag.

The next step is to create a new FCP X Library. This is the equivalent of the FCP 7 project file. Typically you would use a single Library for an entire production, however, FCP X permits you to work with multiple open Libraries, just like you could have multiple projects open in FCP 7. In order to set up all external folder locations within FCP X, highlight the Library name and then in the Inspector panel choose “modify settings” for the storage locations listed in the Library Properties panel. Here you can designate whether media goes directly into the internal folders of the Library package or to other target folders that you assign. This step is similar to setting the Capture Scratch locations in FCP 7.

How to organize clips within FCP X

df1415_organize_8Final Cut Pro X organizes master source clips on three levels – Events, Keyword Collections, and Smart Collections. These are an equivalent to Bins in other NLEs, but don’t completely work in the same fashion. When clips are imported, they will go into a specific Event, which is closest in function to a Bin. It’s best to keep the number of Events low, since Keyword Collections work within an Event and not across multiple Events. I normally create individual Events for edited sequences, camera footage, audio, graphics, and a few more categories. Clips within an Event can be grouped in the browser display in different ways, such as by import date. This can be useful when you want to quickly find the last few files imported in a production that spans many days. Most of the time I set grouping and sorting to “none”.

df1415_organize_7To organize clips within an Event, use Keywords. Setting a Keyword for a clip – or a range within a clip – is comparable to creating subclips in FCP 7. When you add a Keyword, that clip or range will automatically be sorted into a Keyword Collection with a matching name. Keywords can be assigned to keyboard hot keys, which creates a very quick way to go through every clip and assign it into a variety of Keyword Collections. Clips can be assigned to more than one Collection. Again, this is equivalent to creating subclips and placing them into separate Bins.

On one set of commercials featuring company employees, I created Keyword Collections for each person, department, shoot date, store location, employees, managers, and general b-roll footage. This made it easy to derive spots that featured a diverse range of speakers. It also made it easy to locate a specific clip that the director or client might ask for, based on “I think Mary said that” or “It was shot at the Kansas City store”. Keyword Collections can be placed into folders. Collections for people by name went into one folder, Collections by location into another, and so on.

df1415_organize_3The beauty of Final Cut Pro X is that it works in tandem with any organization you’ve done in the Finder. If you spent the time to move clips into specific folders or you assigned color-coded Finder tags, then this information can be used when importing clips into FCP X. The import dialogue gives you the option to “leave files in place” and to use Finder folders and tags to automatically create corresponding Keyword Collections. Camera files that were organized into camera/date/card folders will automatically be placed into Keyword Collections that are organized in the same fashion. If you assigned clips with Mary, John, and Joe to have red, blue, and green tags for each person, then you’ll end up with those clips automatically placed into Keyword Collections named red, blue, and green. Once imported, simply rename the red, blue, and green Collections to Mary, John, and Joe.

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The third level of clip organization is Smart Collections. Use these to automatically filter clips based on the criteria that you set. With the release of FCP X version 10.2, Smart Collections have been moved from the Event level (10.1.4 or earlier) to the Library level – meaning that filtering can occur across multiple Events within the Library. By default, new Libraries are created with several preset Smart Collections that can be used, deleted, or modified. Here’s an example of how to use these. When you sync double-system sound clips or multiple cameras, new grouped clips are created – Synchronized Clips and Multicam Clips. These will appear in the Event along with all the other source files, which can be unwieldy. To focus strictly on these new grouped clips, create a Smart Collection with the criteria set by type to include these two categories. Then, as new grouped clips are created, they will automatically be filtered into this Smart Collection, thus reducing clutter for the editor.

Playing nice with others

df1415_organize_9Final Cut Pro X was designed around a new paradigm, so it tends to live in its own world. Most professional editors have the need for a higher level of interoperability with other applications and with outside vendors. To aid in these functions, you’ll need to turn to third party applications from a handful of vendors that have focused on workflow productivity utilities for FCP X. These include Intelligent Assistance/Assisted Editing, XMiL, Spherico, Marquis Broadcast, and Thomas Szabo. Their utilities make it possible to go between FCP X and the outside world, through list formats like AAF, EDL, and XML.

df1415_organize_11Final Cut’s only form of decision list exchange is FCPXML, which is a distinctly different data format than other forms of XML. Apple Logic Pro X, Blackmagic Design DaVinci Resolve and Autodesk Smoke can read it. Everything else requires a translated file and that’s where these independent developers come in. Once you use an application like XtoCC (formerly Xto7) from Intelligent Assistance to convert FCPXML to XML for an edited sequence, other possibilities are opened up. The translated XML file can now be brought into Adobe Premiere Pro or FCP 7. Or you can use other tools designed for FCP 7. For instance, I needed to generate a print-out of markers with comments and thumbnail images from a film, in order to hand off notes to the visual effects company. By bringing a converted XML file into Digital Heaven’s Final Print – originally designed with only the older Final Cut in mind – this became a doable task.

df1415_organize_13Thomas Szabo has concentrated on some of the media functions that are still lacking with FCP X. Need to get to After Effects or Nuke? The ClipExporter and ClipExporter2 applications fit the bill. His newest tool is PrimariesExporter. This utility uses FCPXML to enable batch exports of clips from a timeline, a series of single-frame exports based on markers, or a list of clip metadata. Intelligent Assistance offers the widest set of tools for FCP X, including Producer’s Best Friend. This tool enables editors to create a range of reports needed on most major jobs. It delivers them in spreadsheet format.

Understanding the thought processes behind FCP X and learning to use its powerful relational database will get you through complex projects in record time. Better yet, it gives you the confidence to know that no editorial stone was left unturned. For more information on advanced workflows and organization with Final Cut Pro X, check out FCPworks, MacBreak Studio (hosted by Pixel Corps), Larry Jordan, Lynda.com and Ripple Training.

For those that want to know more about the nuts and bolts of the post production workflow for feature films, check out Mike Matzdorff’s “Final Cut Pro X: Pro Workflow”, an iBook that’s a step-by-step advanced guide based on the lessons learned on Focus.

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2015 Oliver Peters

Building FCP X Effects – Update

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A few weeks ago I built and posted a small FCP X color correction effect using the Motion template process. While I have no intention of digging deeper into plug-in design, it’s an interesting experiment into understanding how you can use the power of Motion and Final Cut Pro X to develop custom effects, transitions, and generators. In this process, I’ve done a bit of tweaking, created a few more effects, and gotten a better understanding of how it all works. If you download the updated effects, there are a total of three filters (Motion templates) – a color corrector, a levels filter and a DVE.

Color science

In going through this exercise, a few things have been brought to my attention. First of all, filters are not totally transparent. If you apply my color correction filter, you’ll see slight changes in the videoscopes even when each tab is at its default. This doesn’t really matter since you are applying a correction anyway; but if it annoys you, then simply uncheck the item you aren’t using, like brightness or contrast.

df2615_fcpxfilterupdate_3Secondly, the exact same filter in FCP X may or may not use the same color science as the Motion version, even though they are called the same thing. Specifically this is the case with the Hue/Saturation filter. My template uses the one from Motion, of course. The FCP X Hue/Sat filter uses a color model in which saturation is held constant and luma (a composite of RGB) varies. The Motion version holds luma constant and allows saturation to vary.

The quickest way to test this is with a solid red generator. Apply the FCP X Hue/Sat filter and rotate the hue control. Set the scopes to display an RGB parade, vectorscope, and the waveform set to luma. As you rotate the hue around the dial, you’ll notice that the color dot stays neatly in the boxes of the vectorscope and moves in a straight, diagonal line from vector to vector. The RGB parade will show a perfect combination of red, blue, and green values to achieve the correct RMBCGY coordinates. However, the waveform luma levels will move up and down with large changes.

Now compare this to the hue control in the Hue/Sat filter included in my template. This is from Motion. As you rotate the hue control around the dial, the saturation value moves in what seems to be an erratic fashion around the vectorscope; but, the luma display changes very little. If you apply this same test to real footage, instead of a generated background color, you’ll get perceptually better results with Motion’s Hue/Sat filter than with the FCP X version. In most cases, either approach is acceptable, since for the purposes of color correction, you will likely only move the dial a few degrees left or right from the default of zero. Hue changes in color grading should be very subtle.

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Expanding filter features

After I built this first Motion template, I decided to poke around some more inside Motion to see if it offered other filters that had value for color correction. And as a matter of fact, it does. Motion includes a very nice Levels filter. It includes sliders for RGB as a group, as well as individual settings for red, green, and blue. Each group is broken down into sliders for black in/out, white in/out, and gamma. Then there’s an overall mix value. That a total of 21 sliders, not counting opacity, which I didn’t publish in my template. Therefore, you have fairly large control over grading using only the Levels filter.

df2615_fcpxfilterupdate_4I thought about building it into the earlier Oliver Color filter I had created, but ran into some obvious design issues. When you build these effects, it’s important to think through the order of clicking publish on the parameters that you want to appear inside of FCP X. This sequence will determine where these values appear in the stack of controls in the FCP X inspector. In other words, even though I placed this Levels filter ahead of Color Balance within Motion, the fact that I clicked publish after these other values had already been published, meant that these new controls would be placed to the bottom of my stack once this was displayed in FCP X. The way to correct this is to first unpublish everything and then select publish for each parameter in the order that you want it to appear.

A huge interface design concern is just how cluttered you do or don’t want your effect controls to be inside of FCP X. This was a key design issue when FCP X was created. You’ll notice that Apple’s built-in FCP X effects have a minimalist approach to the number of sliders available for each filter. Adding Levels into my Color filter template meant adding 21 more sliders to an interface that already combined a number of parameters for each of the other components. Going through this exercise makes it clear why Apple took the design approach they did and why other developers have resorted to various workarounds, such as floating controls, HUDs, and other solutions. The decision for me was simply to create a separate Oliver Levels filter that could be used separately, as needed.

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More value from color presets 

An interesting discovery I made was how Color Board presets can be used in FCP X 10.2. When you choose a preset from the Color Board’s pulldown menu, you can access these settings as you always have. The downside is that you can’t preview a setting like you can other effects in the effects palette. You have to apply a preset from the Color Board to see what it will look like with your image.df2615_fcpxfilterupdate_5

FCP X 10.2 adds the ability to save filter presets. Since color correction using the Color Board has now been turned into a standard filter, you can save color presets as an effects preset. This means that if you have a number of Color Board presets (the built-in FCP X settings, mine, or any custom ones you’ve created) simply apply the color preset and then save that color correction filter setting as a new effects preset. When you do this you get a choice of what category to save it into. You can create your own, such as My Color Presets. Now these presets will show up in that category inside the effects palette. When you skim over the preset icon, your image will be previewed with that color correction value applied.

Although these presets appear in the same palette as other Motion templates, the effects presets themselves are stored in a different place. They are located in the OS X user library under Application Support/ProApps/Effects Presets. For example, I created 40 Color Board presets that can all be turned into Effects Presets visible within the Effects palette. I’m not going to post them that way, but if you feel ambitious, I would invite you to download the Color Board presets and make your own effects presets out of them.

All of this is a great way to experiment and see how you can use the resources Apple has provided to personalize a system tailored to your own post needs.

Click here to download the Motion template effects.

Click here to download updated and additional Motion template effects (FCP X 10.2.1 or later).

Click here to download the Color Board presets.

For some additional resources for free plug-ins, check out Ripple Training, Alex4D and FxFactory.

©2015 Oliver Peters