Premiere Pro Multicam Editing

Over the years, a lot of the projects that I’ve edited have been based on real-person interviews. This includes documentaries, commercials, and corporate video. As the cost of camera gear has come down and DSLRs became capable of delivering quality video, interview-based production now almost always utilizes multiple cameras. Directors will typically record these sections with two or more cameras at various tangents to the subject, which makes it easy to edit for content without visible jump-cuts (hopefully). In addition, if they also shoot in 4K for an HD delivery, then you have the additional ability to cleanly punch-in for even more framing options.

While having a specific multicam feature in your NLE isn’t required for cutting these types of productions, it sure speeds up the process. Under the best of circumstances, you can play the sequence in real-time and cut between camera angles in the multicam viewer, much like a director calls camera switches in a live telecast. Since you are working within an NLE, you can also make these camera angle cuts at a slower or faster pace and, of course, trim the cuts for greater timing precision. Premiere Pro is my primary NLE these days and its multi-camera editing routines are a joy to use.

Prepping for multi-camera

Synchronization is the main requirement for productive multicam. That starts at the time of the original recording. You can either sync by common timecode, common audio, or a marked in-point.

Ideally, your production crew should use a Lockit Sync Box to generate timecode and sync to all cameras and any external sound recorder. That will only work with professional products, not DSLRs. Lacking that, the next best thing is old school – a common slate with a clap-stick or even just your subject clapping hands at the start, while in view on all cameras. This will allow the editor to mark a common in-point.

The last sync method is to match the common audio across all sources. Of course, that only works if the production crew has supplied quality audio to all cameras and external recorders. It has to be at least good enough so that the human editor and/or the audio analysis of the software can discern a match. Sometimes this method will suffer from a minor amount of delay – either, because of the inherent offset of the audio recording circuitry within the camera electronics – or, because an onboard camera mic was used and the distance to the subject results in a slight delay, compared to a lav mic on the subject.

In addition to synchronization, you obviously need to record high-quality audio. This can be a mixer feed or direct mic input to one or all of the camera tracks, or to a separate external audio recorder. A typical set-up is to feed a lav and a boom mic signal to audio input channels 1 and 2 of the camera. When a mixer and an external recorder are used, the sound recordist will often also record a mix. Another option, though not as desirable, is to record individual microphone signals onto different cameras. The reason this isn’t preferred, is that sometimes when these two sources are mixed in post (rather than only one source used at a time), audio phasing can occur.

Synching in Premiere Pro

To synchronize multicam clips in Premiere Pro, simply select the matching sources in the browser/bin, right-click, and choose “Create New Multi-Camera Source Sequence”. You will be presented with several options for sync, based on timecode, audio, or marked points. You may also opt to have the clips moved to a “Processed Clips” bin. If synchronization is successful, you’ll then end up with a multicam source clip that you can now cut to a standard sequence.

A multicam source clip is actually a modified, nested sequence. You can open the clip – same as a nested sequence – and make adjustments or apply filters to the clips within.

You can also create multicam clips without going through the aforementioned process. For example, let’s say that none of the three sync methods exist. You have a freewheeling interview with two or more cameras, but only one has any audio. There’s no clap and no common timecode. In fact, if all the cameras were DSLRs, then every clip arbitrarily starts at 00:00:00:00. The way to tackle this is to edit these cameras to separate video tracks of a new sequence. Sync the video by slipping the clips’ positions on the tracks. Select those clips on the timeline and create a nest. Once the nest is created, this can then be turned into a multicam source clip, which enables you to work with the multicam viewer.

One step I follow is to place the multicam source clip onto a sequence and replace the audio with the best original source. The standard multicam routine means that audio is also nested, which is something I dislike. I don’t want all of the camera audio tracks there, even if they are muted. So I will typically match-frame the source until I get back to the original audio that I intend to use, and then overwrite the multicam clip’s audio with the original on this working timeline. On the other hand, if the manual multicam creation method is used, then I would only nest the video tracks, which automatically leaves me with the clean audio that I desire.

Autosequence

One simple approach is to use an additional utility to create multicam sequences, such as Autosequence from software developer VideoToolShed. To use Autosequence, your clips must have matching timecode. First separate all of your clips into separate folders on your media hard drive – A-CAM, B-CAM, SOUND, and so on. Launch Autosequence and set the matching frame rate for your media. Then import each folder of clips separately. If you are using double-system sound you can choose whether or not to include the camera sound. Then generate an XML file.

Now, import the XML file into Premiere Pro. This will import the source media into bins, along with a sequence of clips where each camera is on a separate track. If your clips are broken into consecutive recordings with stops and starts in-between, then each recorded set will appear further down on the same timeline. To turn this sequence into one with multicam clips, just follow my explanation for working with a manual process, described above.

Multicam cutting

At this point, I dupe the sequence(s) and start a reductive process of shaping the interview. I usually don’t worry too much about changing camera angles, until I have the story fleshed out. When you are ready for that, right-click into the viewer, and change the display mode to multicam.

As you play, cut between cameras in the viewer by clicking on the corresponding section of the viewer. The timeline will update to show these on-the-fly edits when you stop playback. Or you can simply “blade” the clip and then right-click that portion of the clip to select the camera to be shown. Remember than any effects or color corrections you apply in the timeline are applicable to that visible angle, but do not follow it. So, if you change your mind and switch to a different angle, the effects and corrections do not change with it. Therefore, adjustments will be required to the effect or correction for that new camera angle.

Once I’m happy with the cutting, I will then go through and make a color correction pass. If the lighting has stayed consistent, I can usually grade each angle for one clip only and then copy that correction and paste it to each instance of that same angle on the timeline. Then repeat the procedure for the other camera angles.

When I’m ready to deliver the final product, I will dupe the sequence and clean it up. This means flattening all multicam clips, cleaning up unused clips on my timeline, deleting empty tracks, and usually, collapsing the clips down to the fewest number of tracks.

©2018 Oliver Peters

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Audio Mixing with Premiere Pro

When budgets permit and project needs dictate, I will send my mixes out-of-house to one of a few regular mixers. Typically that means sending them an OMF or AAF to mix in Pro Tools. Then I get the mix and split-tracks back, drop them into my Premiere Pro timeline, and generate master files.

On the other hand, a lot of my work is cutting simple commercials and corporate presentations for in-house use or the web, and these are often less demanding  – 2 to 8 tracks of dialogue, limited sound effects, and music. It’s easy to do the mix inside of the NLE. Bear in mind that I can – and often have – done such a mix in Apple Logic Pro X or Adobe Audition, but the tools inside Premiere Pro are solid enough that I often just keep everything – mix included – inside my editing application. Let’s walk though that process.

Dealing with multiple channels on source clips

Start with your camera files or double-system audio recordings. Depending on the camera model, Premiere Pro will see these source clips as having either stereo (e.g. a Canon C100) or multi-channel mono (e.g. ARRI Alexa) channels. If you recorded a boom mic on channel 1 and a lavaliere mic on channel 2, then these will drop onto your stereo timeline either as two separate mono tracks (Alexa) – or as a single stereo track (C100), with the boom coming out of the left speaker and the lav out of the right. Which one it is will strictly depend on the device used to generate the original recordings.

First, when dual-mic recordings appear as stereo, you have to understand how Premiere Pro deals with stereo sources. Panning in Premiere Pro doesn’t “shift” the audio left, right, or center. Instead, it increases or decreases the relative volume of the left or right half of this stereo field. In our dual-mic scenario, panning the clip or track full left means that we only hear the boom coming out of the left speaker, but nothing out of the right. There are two ways to fix this – either by changing the channel configuration of the source in the browser – or by changing it after the fact in the timeline. Browser changes will not alter the configuration of clips already edited to the timeline. You can change one or more source clips from stereo to dual-mono in the browser, but you can’t make that same type of change to a clip already in your sequence.

Let’s assume that you aren’t going to make any browser changes and instead just want to work in your sequence. If your source clip is treated as dual-mono, then the boom and lav will cut over to track 1 and 2 of your sequence – and the sound will be summed in mono on the output to your speaks. However, if the clip is treated as stereo, then it will only cut over to track 1 of your sequence – and the sound will stay left and right on the output to your speakers. When it’s dual-mono, you can listen to one track versus the other, determine which mic sounds the best, and disable the clip with the other mic. Or you can blend the two using clip volume levels.

If the source clip ends up in the sequence as a stereo clip, then you will want to determine which one of the two mics you want to use for the best sound. To pick only one mic, you will need to change the clip’s audio configuration. When you do that, it’s still a stereo clip, however, both “sides” can be supplied by either one of the two source channels. So, both left and right output will either be the boom or the lav, but not both. If you want to blend both mics together, then you will need to duplicate (option-drag) the audio clip onto an adjacent timeline track, and change the audio channel configuration for both clips. One would be set to the boom for both channels and the other set to only the lav for its two channels. Then adjust clip volume for the two timeline clips.

Configuring your timeline

Like most editors, while I’m working through the stages of rough cutting on the way to an approved final copy, I will have a somewhat messy timeline. I may have multiple music cues on several tracks with only one enabled – just so I can preview alternates for the client. I will have multiple dialogue clips on a few tracks with some disabled, depending on microphone or take options. But when I’m ready to move to the finishing stage, I will duplicate that sequence to create a “final version” and clean that one up. This means getting rid of any disabled clips, collapsing my audio and video clips to the fewest number of tracks, and using Premiere’s track creation/deletion feature to delete all empty tracks – all so I can have the least amount of visual clutter. 

In other blog posts, I’ve discussed working with additional submix buses to create split-track exports; but, for most of these smaller jobs, I will only add one submix bus. (I will explain its purpose in a moment.) Once created, you will need to open the track mixer panel and route the timeline channels from the master to the submix bus and then the output of the submix bus back to the master.

Plug-ins

Premiere Pro CC comes with a nice set of audio plug-ins, which can be augmented with plenty of third-party audio effects filters. I am partial to Waves and iZotope, but these aren’t essential. However, there are several that I do use quite frequently. These three third-party filters will help improve any vocal-heavy piece.

The first two are Vocal Rider and MV2 from Waves and are designed specifically for vocal performances, like voice-overs and interviews. These can be pricey, but Waves has frequent sales, so I was able to pick these up for a fraction of their retail price. Vocal Rider is a real-time, automatic volume adjustment tool. Set the bottom and top parameters and let Vocal Rider do the rest, by automatically pushing the volume up or down on-the-fly. MV2 is similar, but it achieves this through compression on the top and bottom ends of the range. While they operate in a similar fashion, they do produce a different sound. I tend to pick MV2 for voice-overs and Vocal Rider for interviews.

We all know location audio isn’t perfect, which is where my third filter comes in. FxFactory is knows primarily for video plug-ins, but their partnership with Crumplepop has added a nice set of audio filters to their catalog. I find AudioDenoise to be quite helpful and fast in fixing annoying location sounds, like background air conditioning noise. It’s real-time and good-sounding, but like all audio noise reduction, you have to be careful not to overdo it, or everything will sound like it’s underwater.

For my other mix needs, I’ll stick to Premiere’s built-in effects, like EQ, compressors, etc. One that’s useful for music is the stereo imager. If you have a music cue that sounds too monaural, this will let you “expand” the track’s stereo signal so that it is spread more left and right. This often helps when you want the voice-over to cut through the mix a bit better. 

My last plug-in is a broadcast limiter that is placed onto the master bus. I will adjust this tight with a hard limit for broadcast delivery, but much higher (louder allowed) for web files. Be aware that Premiere’s plug-in architecture allows you to have the filter take affect either pre or post-fader. In the case of the master bus, this will also affect the VU display. In other words, if you place a limiter post-fader, then the result will be heard, but not visible through the levels displayed on the VU meters.

Mixing

I have used different mixing strategies over the years with Premiere Pro. I like using the write function of the track mixer to write fader automation. However, I have lately stopped using it – instead going back to manual keyframes within the clips. The reason is probably that my projects tend to get revised often in ways that change timing. Since track automation is based on absolute timeline position, keyframes don’t move when a clip is shifted, like they would when clip-based volume keyframes are used.

Likewise, Adobe has recently added Audition’s ducking for music to Premiere Pro. This uses Adobe’s Sensei artificial intelligence. Unfortunately I don’t find to be “intelligent” enough. Although sometimes it can provide a starting point. For me, it’s simply too coarse and doesn’t intelligently adjust for areas within a music clip that swell or change volume internally. Therefore, I stick with minor manual adjustments to compensate for music changes and to make the vocal parts easy to understand in the mix. Then I will use the track mixer to set overall levels for each track to get the right balance of voice, sound effects, and music.

Once I have a decent balance to my ears, I will temporarily drop the TC Electronic (included with Premiere Pro) Radar loudness plug-in to make sure my mix is CALM-compliant. This is where the submix bus comes in. If I like the overall balance, but I need to bring everything down, it’s an easy matter to simply lower the submix level and remeasure.

Likewise, it’s customary to deliver web versions with louder volume levels than the broadcast mix. Again the submix bus will help, because you cannot raise the volume on the master – only lower it. If you simply want to raise the overall volume of the broadcast mix for web delivery, simply raise the submix fader. Note that when I say louder, I’m NOT talking about slamming the VUs all the way to the top. Typically, a mix that hits -6 is plenty loud for the web. So, for web delivery, I will set a hard limit at -6, but adjust the mix for an average of about -10.

Hopefully this short explanation has provided some insight into mixing within Premiere Pro and will help you make sure that your next project sounds great.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Stocking Stuffers 2017

It’s holiday time once again. For many editors that means it’s time to gift themselves with some new tools and toys to speed their workflows or just make the coming year more fun! Here are some products to consider.

Just like the tiny house craze, many editors are opting for their laptops as their main editing tool. I’ve done it for work that I cut when I’m not freelancing in other shops, simply because my MacBook Pro is a better machine than my old (but still reliable) 2009 Mac Pro tower. One less machine to deal with, which simplifies life. But to really make it feel like a desktop tool, you need some accessories along with an external display. For me, that boils down to a dock, a stand, and an audio interface. There are several stands for laptops. I bought both the Twelve South BookArc and the Rain Design mStand: the BookArc for when I just want to tuck the closed MacBook Pro out of the way in the clamshell mode and the mStand for when I need to use the laptop’s screen as a second display. Another option some editors like is the Vertical Dock from Henge Docks, which not only holds the MacBook Pro, but also offers some cable management.

The next hardware add-on for me is a USB audio interface. This is useful for any type of computer and may be used with or without other interfaces from Blackmagic Design or AJA. The simplest of these is the Mackie Onyx Blackjack, which combines interface and output monitor mixing into one package. This means no extra small mixer is required. USB input and analog audio output direct to a pair of powered speakers. But if you prefer a separate small mixer and only want a USB interface for input/output, then the PreSonus Audiobox USB or the Focusrite Scarlett series is the way to go.

Another ‘must have’ with any modern system is a Thunderbolt dock in order to expand the native port connectivity of your computer. There are several on the market but it’s hard to go wrong with either the CalDigit Thunderbolt Station 2 or the OWC Thunderbolt 2 Dock. Make sure you double-check which version fits for your needs, depending on whether you have a Thunderbolt 2 or 3 connection and/or USB-C ports. I routinely use each of the CalDigit and OWC products. The choice simply depends on which one has the right combination of ports to fit your needs.

Drives are another issue. With a small system, you want small portable drives. While LaCie Rugged and G-Technology portable drives are popular choices, SSDs are the way to go when you need true, fast performance. A number of editors I’ve spoken to are partial to the Samsung Portable SSD T5 drives. These USB3.0-compatible drives aren’t the cheapest, but they are ultraportable and offer amazing read/write speeds. Another popular solution is to use raw (uncased) drives in a drive caddy/dock for archiving purposes. Since they are raw, you don’t pack for the extra packaging, power supply, and interface electronics with each, just to have it sit on the shelf. My favorite of these is the HGST Deckstar NAS series.

For many editors the software world is changing with free applications, subscription models, and online services. The most common use of the latter is for review-and-approval, along with posting demo clips and short films. Kollaborate.tv, Frame.io, Wipster.io, and Vimeo are the best known. There are plenty of options and even Vimeo Pro and Business plans offer a Frame/Wipster-style review-and-approval and collaboration service. Plus, there’s some transfer ability between these. For example, you can publish to a Vimeo account from your Frame account. Another expansion of the online world is in team workgroups. A popular solution is Slack, which is a workgroup-based messaging/communication service.

As more resources become available online, the benefits of large-scale computing horsepower are available to even single editors. One of the first of these new resources is cloud-based, speech-to-text transcription. A number of online services provide this functionality to any NLE. Products to check out include Scribeomatic (Coremelt), Transcriptive (Digital Anarchy), and Speedscriber (Digital Heaven). They each offer different pricing models and speech analysis engines. Some are still in beta, but one that’s already out is Speedscriber, which I’ve used and am quite happy with. Processing is fast and reasonably accurate, given a solid audio recording.

Naturally free tools make every user happy and the king of the hill is Blackmagic Design with DaVinci Resolve and Fusion. How can you go wrong with something this powerful and free with ongoing company product development? Even the paid versions with some more advanced features are low cost. However, at the very least the free version of Resolve should be in every editor’s toolkit, because it’s such a Swiss Army Knife application.

On the other hand, editors who have the need to learn Avid Media Composer, need look no further than the free Media Composer | First. Avid has tried ‘dumbed-down’ free editing apps before, but First is actually built off of the same code base as the full Media Composer software. Thus, skills translate and most of the core functions are available for you to use.

Many users are quite happy with the advantages of Adobe’s Creative Cloud software subscription model. Others prefer to own their software. If you work in video, then it’s easy to put together alternative software kits for editing, effects, audio, and encoding that don’t touch an Adobe product. Yet for most, the stumbling block is Photoshop – until now. Both Affinity Photo (Serif) and Pixelmator Pro are full-fledged graphic design and creation tools that rival Photoshop in features and quality. Each of these has its own strong points. Affinity Photo offers Mac and Windows versions, while Pixelmator Pro is Mac only, but taps more tightly into macOS functions.

If you work in the Final Cut Pro X world, several utilities are essential. These include SendToX and XtoCC from Intelligent Assistance, along with X2Pro Audio Convert from Marquis Broadcast. Marquis’ newest is Worx4 X – a media management tool. It takes your final sequence and creates a new FCPX library with consolidated (trimmed) media. No transcoding is involved, so the process is lighting fast. Although in some cases media is copied without being trimmed. This can reduce the media to be archived from TBs down to GBs. They also offer Worx4 Pro, which is designed for Premiere Pro CC users. This tool serves as a media tracking application, to let editors find all of the media used in a Premiere Pro project across multiple volumes.

Most editors love to indulge in plug-in packages. If you can only invest in a single, large plug-in package, then BorisFX’s Boris Continuum Complete 11 and/or their Sapphire 11 bundles are the way to go. These are industry-leading tools with wide host and platform support. Both feature mocha tracking integration and Continuum also includes the Primatte Studio chromakey technology.

If you want to go for a build-it-up-as-you-need-it approach – and you are strictly on the Mac – then FxFactory will be more to your liking. You can start with the free, basic platform or buy the Pro version, which includes FxFactory’s own plug-ins. Either way, FxFactory functions as a plug-in management tool. FxFactory’s numerous partner/developers provide their products through the FxFactory platform, which functions like an app store for plug-ins. You can pick and choose the plug-ins that you need when the time is right to purchase them. There are plenty of plug-ins to recommend, but I would start with any of the Crumplepop group, because they work well and provide specific useful functions. They also include the few audio plug-ins available via FxFactory. Another plug-in to check out is the Hawaiki Keyer 4. It installs into both the Apple and Adobe applications and far surpasses the built-in keying tools within these applications.

The Crumplepop FxFactory plug-ins now includes Koji Advance, which is a powerful film look tool. I like Koji a lot, but prefer FilmConvert from Rubber Monkey Software. To my eyes, it creates one of the more pleasing and accurate film emulations around and even adds a very good three-way color corrector. This opens as a floating window inside of FCPX, which is less obtrusive than some of the other color correction plug-ins for FCPX. It’s not just for film emulation – you can actually use it as the primary color corrector for an entire project.

I don’t want to forget audio plug-ins in this end-of-the-year roundup. Most editors don’t feel too comfortable with a ton of surgical audio filters, so let me stick to suggestions that are easy-to-use and very affordable. iZotope is a well-known audio developer and several of its products are perfect for video editors. These fall into repair, mixing, and mastering needs. These include the Nectar, Ozone, and RX bundles, along with the RX Loudness Control. The first three groups are designed to cover a wide range of needs and, like the BCC video plug-ins, are somewhat of an all-encompassing product offering. But if that’s a bit rich for the blood, then check out iZotope’s various Elements versions.

The iZotope RX Loudness Control is great for accurate loudness compliance, and best used with Avid or Adobe products. However, it is not real-time, because it uses analysis and adaptive processing. If you want something more straightforward and real-time, then check out the LUFS Meter from Klangfreund. It can be used for loudness control on individual tracks or the master output. It works with most of the NLEs and DAWs. A similar tool to this is Loudness Change from Videotoolshed.

Finally, let’s not forget the iOS world, which is increasingly becoming a viable production platform. For example, I’ve used my iPad in the last year to do location interview recordings. This is a market that audio powerhouse Apogee has also recognized. If you need a studio-quality hardware interface for an iPhone or iPad, then check out the Apogee ONE. In my case, I tapped the Apogee MetaRecorder iOS application for my iPad, which works with both Apogee products and the iPad’s built-in mic. It can be used in conjunction with FCPX workflows through the integration of metadata tagging for Keywords, Favorites, and Markers.

Have a great holiday season and happy editing in the coming year!

©2017 Oliver Peters

Audio Splits and Stems in Premiere Pro Revisited

Creating multichannel, “split-track” master exports of your final sequences is something that should be a standard step in all of your productions. It’s often a deliverable requirement and having such a file makes later revisions or derivative projects much easier to produce. If you are a Final Cut Pro X user, the “audio lanes” feature makes it easy to organize and export sequences with isolated channels for dialogue, music, and effects. FCPX pros like to tweak the noses of other NLE users about how much easier it is in FCPX. While that’s more or less true – and, in fact, can be a lot deeper than simply a few aggregate channels – that doesn’t mean it’s particularly hard or less versatile in Premiere Pro.

Last year I wrote about how to set this up using Premiere submix tracks, which is a standard audio post workflow, common to most DAW and mix applications. Go back and read the article for more detail. But, what about sequences that are already edited, which didn’t start with a track configuration already set up with submix tracks and proper output routing? In fact, that’s quite easy, too, which brings me to today’s post.

Step 1 – Edit

Start out by editing as you always have, using your standard sequence presets. I’ve created a few custom presets that I normally use, based on the several standard formats I work in, like 1080p/23.976 and 1080p/29.97. These typically require stereo mixes, so my presets start with a minimum configuration of one picture track, two standard audio tracks, and stereo output. This is the starting point, but more video and audio tracks get added, as needed, during the course of editing.

Get into a habit of organizing your audio tracks. Typically this means dialogue and VO tracks towards the top (A1-A4), then sound effects (A5-A8), and finally music (A9-A12). Keep like audio types on their intended tracks. What you don’t want to do is mix different audio types onto the same track. For instance, don’t put sound effects onto tracks that you’ve designated for dialogue clips. Of course, the number of actual tracks needed for these audio types will vary with your projects. A simple VO+music sequence will only have two to four tracks, while dramatic entertainment pieces will have a lot more. Delete all empty audio tracks when you are ready to mix.

Mix for stereo output as you normally would. This means balancing components using keyframes and clip mixing. Then perform overall adjustments and “riding faders” in the track mixer. This is also where I add global effects, like compression for dialogue and limiting for the master mix.

Output your final mixed master file for delivery.

Step 2 – Multichannel DME sequences

The next step is to create or open a new multichannel DME (dialogue/music/effects) sequence. I’ve already created a custom preset, which you may download and install. It’s set up as 1080p/23.976, with two standard audio channels and three, pre-labelled stereo submix channels, but you can customize yours as needed. The master output is multichannel (8-channels), which is sufficient to cover stereo pairs for the final mix, plus isolated pairs for each of the three submixes – dialogue, music, and effects.

Next, copy-and-paste all clips from your final stereo sequence to the new multichannel sequence. If you have more than one track of picture and two tracks of audio, the new blank sequence will simply auto-populate more tracks once you paste the clips into it. The result should look the same, except with the additional three submix tracks at the bottom of your timeline. At this stage, the output of all tracks is still routed to the stereo master output and the submix tracks are bypassed.

Now open the track mixer panel and, from the pulldown output selector, switch each channel from master to its appropriate submix channel. Dialogue tracks to DIA, music tracks to MUS, and effects tracks to SFX. The sequence preset is already set up with proper output routing. All submixes go to output 1 and 2 (composite stereo mix), along with their isolated output – dialogue to 3 and 4, effects to 5 and 6, music to 7 and 8. As with your stereo mix, level adjustments and plug-in processing (compression, EQ, limiting, etc.) can be added to each of the submix channels.

Note: while not essential, multichannel, split-track master files are most useful when they are also textless. So, before outputting, I would recommend disabling all titles and lower third graphics in this sequence. The result is clean video – great for quick fixes later in the event of spelling errors or a title change.

Step 3 – Multichannel export

Now that the sequence is properly organized, you’ve got to export the multichannel sequence. I have created a mastering export preset, which you may also download. It works in the various Adobe CC apps, but is designed for Adobe Media Encoder workflows. This preset will match its output to the video size and frame rate of your sequence and master to a file with the ProRes4444 codec. The audio is set for eight output channels, configured as four stereo pairs – composite mix, plus three DME channels.

To test your exported file, simply reimport the multichannel file back into Premiere Pro and drop it onto a timeline. There you should see four independent stereo channels with audio organized according to the description above.

Presets

I have created a sequence and an export preset, which you may download here. I have only tested these on Mac systems, where they are installed into the Adobe folder contained within the user’s Documents folder. The sequence preset is placed into the Premiere Pro folder and the export preset into the Adobe Media Encoder folder. If you’ve updated the Adobe apps along the way, you will have a number of version subfolders. As of December 2017, the 12.0 subfolder is the correct location. Happy mixing!

©2017 Oliver Peters

SpeedScriber

Script-based video editing started with Ediflex. But, it really came into its own when Avid created script integration as a way to cut dialogue-driven stories, like feature films, in Media Composer. The key ingredient is a written script or a transcription of the spoken audio. This is easy with a feature that’s been acted according to defined script lines, but much harder with something freeform, like a documentary or news interview. In those projects, you first need a person or service to transcribe the audio into a written document – or simply cut without it and hunt around when you look for that one specific sentence.

Modern technology has come to the rescue in the form of artificial intelligence, which has enabled a number of transcription services to offer very fast turnaround times from audio upload to a transcribed, speech-to-text document. Several video developers have tapped into these resources to create new transcription services/applications, which can be tied into several of the popular NLE applications.

Transcription for the three “A” companies

One of these new products is SpeedScriber, a transcription application for macOS and its companion service developed by Digital Heaven, which was founded by veteran UK editor and plug-in developer Martin Baker. To start using SpeedScriber, install the free SpeedScriber application, which is available from the Apple Mac App Store. The next steps depend on whether you just want to create transcribed documents, captioning files, or script integration for Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premiere Pro CC, or Apple Final Cut Pro X.

If you just want a document, or plan to use Media Composer or FCPX, then no other tools are required. For Premiere Pro CC workflows, you’ll want to download an panel installer for macOS or Windows from the SpeedScriber website. This integrates as a standard Premiere Pro panel and permits you to import transcription files directly into Premiere Pro. The SpeedScriber application enables roundtripping to/from Final Cut using FCPXML.

First, let’s talk about the transcription itself. It should generally be clip-based and not from edited timelines, unless you just want to document a completed project or for captioning. When you launch SpeedScriber for the first time, you’ll need to create an account. This will include 15 minutes of free transcription time. The file length determines the time used. Billing for the service is based on time and is tiered, ranging from $.50/minute (30/60/120 minutes) down to $.37/minute (6,000 minutes). Minutes are pre-purchased and don’t expire.

Once your account is ready, drag-and-drop or point the application to the file to import. Disable any unwanted audio channels, so that the transcription is based on the best audio channel within the file. Even if all channels are equal, disable all but one of them. Set up the number of speakers and language format, such as British, Australian, or American English. According to Baker, support for five European languages will be added in version 1.1. The service will automatically determine when speakers change, such as between an interviewer and the subject. It’s hard for the system to determine this with great accuracy, so don’t expect these speaker changes to be perfect.

The transcription experience

Accuracy of the transcription can be extremely good, but it depends on the audio quality that you’ve supplied. A clean interview track – well mic’ed and in a quiet room – can be dead-on with only a few corrections needed. Slower speakers who enunciate well result in greater accuracy. On the other hand, having several speakers in a noisy environment, or a very fast speaker with a heavy accent, will require a lot of correction – enough so that manual transcription might be better in those cases.

Once SpeedScriber has completed its automatic transcription, you can play the file to proof it and make any corrections to the text that are required. It’s easy to type corrections to the transcription within the SpeedScriber text editing window. When done, you can export the text in a number of different formats. I ran a test clip of a clear-spoken woman with well-recorded audio. She had a slight southern drawl, but the result from SpeedScriber was excellent. It also did a good job of ignoring speech idiosyncrasies, such a frequent “ums”. This eight minute test clip only required about a dozen text corrections throughout.

If the objective is script integration into an NLE, then the process varies depending on brand. Typically such integration is clip-based, although multi-cam clips are supported. However, it’s tougher when you try to connect the transcription to a timeline. For example, I like to do cutdowns of interviews first, before transcribing, and that’s not really how ScreedScriber works best. In version 1.1, FCPX compound clips will be supported, so segments can be cut before transcription.

A clear set of tutorial videos are available in the support section of  the SpeedScriber website.

Integration with NLEs

Media Composer is easy, because it already has a Script Integration feature. Import the text file that was exported from SpeedScriber as a new script into Media Composer and link the video clip to it. If you purchased Avid’s ScriptSync, then you can automatically line up the clip to sentences within the script. This happens automatically thanks to ScriptSync’s speech analysis function. But if you didn’t purchase this add-on, simply add sync points manually.

With Premiere Pro, select the clip, open the SpeedScriber panel and from it, import the corresponding transcription. The text appears in the Speech Analysis section of that clip’s metadata display. It will actually be embedded into the media file so that the clip can be moved between projects complete with that clip’s transcription. You can view and use this text display to mark in/out by words for accurate script-based selections. When you import the script and link it to a multi-cam clip, synced clip, or sequence, text will show up as markers and can be viewed in the markers panel. Premiere Pro is the only integration that can easily update existing speech metadata or markers. So you can start editing with the raw transcript and then update it later when corrections have been made. However, when I tested transcriptions on an edited sequence instead of a clip, it locked up Premiere Pro, requiring a Force Quit. Fortunately, when I re-opened the recovered project, the markers were there as expected.

The most straight forward approach seems to be its use with Final Cut Pro X. According to Baker, “This is the first Digital Heaven product with broad appeal by supporting Avid and Premiere Pro. But FCPX has ended up having the deepest integration due to the ability to drag-and-drop the Library, which was introduced in 10.3. So with roundtripping, SpeedScriber rebuilds the clip’s timeline without any need to export. Another advantage of the roundtripping is that SpeedScriber can read the audio channel status from the dropped XML, which is important for getting the best accuracy.”

There’s a roundtrip procedure with FCPX, but even without it, simply export an FCPXML from SpeedScriber. Import that into your Final Cut Pro X Library. The clip will then show a number of keyword entries corresponding to line breaks. For each keyword entry, the browser notes field will display the associated text, making it easy to find any dialogue. Plus, these entries are already marked as selections. When clips are edited into the sequence (an FCPX Project), the timeline index enables these notes to be displayed under the Tags section.

SpeedScriber shows tremendous potential to accelerate the efficiency of many spoken-word projects, like documentaries. Half the battle is trying to figure out the story that you want to tell, so having the text right in front of you makes this job easier. Applying modern technology to this challenge is refreshing and the constantly improving accuracy of these systems makes it an easy consideration. SpeedScriber is one of those tools that not only gets you home earlier, but will give you the assurance that you can easily find that clip you are looking for in the proverbial haystack of clips.

©2017 Oliver Peters

A Light Footprint

When I started video editing, the norm was an edit suite with three large quadraplex (2”) videotape recorders, video switcher, audio mixer, B&W graphics camera(s) for titles, and a computer-assisted, timecode-based edit controller. This was generally considered  an “online edit suite”, but in many markets, this was both “offline” (creative cutting) and “online” (finishing). Not too long thereafter, digital effects (ADO, NEC, Quantel) and character generators (Chyron, Aston, 3M) joined the repertoire. 2” quad eventually gave way to 1” VTRs and those, in turn, were replaced by digital – D1, D2, and finally Digital Betacam. A few facilities with money and clientele migrated to HD versions of these million dollar rooms.

Towards the midpoint in the lifespan for this way of working, nonlinear editing took hold. After a few different contenders had their day in the sun, the world largely settled in with Avid and/or Media 100 rooms. While a lower cost commitment than the large online bays of the day, these nonlinear edit bays (NLE) still required custom-configured Macs, a fair amount of external storage, along with proprietary hardware and monitoring to see a high-quality video image. Though crude at first, NLEs eventually proved capable of handling all the video needs, including HD-quality projects and even higher resolutions today.

The trend towards smaller

As technology advanced, computers because faster and more powerful, storage capacities increased, and software that required custom hardware evolved to work in a software-only mode. Today, it’s possible to operate with a fraction of the cost, equipment, and hassle of just a few years ago, let along a room from the mid-70s. As a result, when designing or installing a new room, it’s important to question the assumptions about what makes a good edit bay configuration.

For example, today I frequently work in rooms running newer iMacs, 2013 Mac Pros, and even MacBook Pro laptops. These are all perfectly capable of running Apple Final Cut Pro X, Adobe Premiere Pro, Avid Media Composer, and other applications, without the need for additional hardware. In my interview with Thomas Grove Carter, he mentioned often working off of his laptop with a connected external drive for media. And that’s at Trim, a high-end London commercial editing boutique.

In my own home edit room, I recently set aside my older Mac Pro tower in favor of working entirely with my 2015 MacBook Pro. No more need to keep two machines synced up and the MBP is zippier in all respects. With the exception of some heavy-duty rendering (infrequent), I don’t miss using the tower. I run the laptop with an external Dell display and have configured my editing application workspaces around a single screen. The laptop is closed and parked in a BookArc stand tucked behind the Dell. But I also bought a Rain stand for those times when I need the MBP open and functioning as a second display.

Reduce your editing footprint

I find more and more editors working in similar configurations. For example, one of my clients is a production company with seven networked (NAS storage) workstations. Most of these are iMacs with few other connected peripherals. The main room has a 2013 “trash can” Mac Pro and a bit more gear, since this is the “hero” room for clients. If you are looking to downsize your editing environment, here are some pointers.

While you can work strictly from a laptop, I prefer to build it up for a better experience. Essential for me is a Thunderbolt dock. Check out OWC or CalDigit for two of the best options. This lets you connect the computer to the dock and then everything else connects to that dock. One Thunderbolt cable to the laptop, plus power for the computer, leaving you with a clean installation with an easy-to-move computer. From the dock, I’m running a Presonus Audiobox USB audio interface (to a Mackie mixer and speakers), a TimeMachine drive, a G-Tech media drive, and the Dell display. If I were to buy something different today, I would use the Mackie Onyx Blackjack interface instead of the Presonus/Mackie mixer combo. The Blackjack is an all-in-one solution.

Expand your peripherals as needed

At the production company’s hero room, we have the extra need to drive some video monitors for color correction and client viewing. That room is similarly configured as above, except with a Mac Pro and connection to a QNAP shared storage solution. The latter connects over 10Gb/s Ethernet via a Sonnet Thunderbolt/Ethernet adapter.

When we initially installed the room, video to the displays was handled by a Blackmagic Design UltraStudio device. However, we had a lot of playback performance issues with the UltraStudio, especially when using FCPX. After some experimenting, we realized that both Premiere Pro and FCPX can send a fullscreen, [generally] color-accurate signal to the wall-mounted flat panel using only HDMI and no other video i/o hardware. We ended up connecting the HDMI from the dock to the display and that’s the standard working routine when we are cutting in either Premiere Pro or Final Cut.

The rub for us is DaVinci Resolve. You must use some type of Blackmagic Design hardware product in order to get fullscreen video to a display when in Resolve. Therefore, the Ultrastudio’s HDMI port connects to the second HDMI input of the large client display and SDI feeds a separate TV Logic broadcast monitor. This is for more accurate color rendition while grading. With Media Composer, there were no performance issues, but the audio and video signal wants to go through the same device. So, if we edit Avid, then the signal chain goes through the UltraStudio, as well.

All of this means that in today’s world, you can work as lightly as you like. Laptop-only – no problem. iMac with some peripherals – no problem. A fancy, client-oriented room – still less hassle and cost than just a few short years ago. Load it up with extra control surfaces or stay light with a keyboard, mouse, or tablet. It all works today – pretty much as advertised. Gone are the days when you absolutely need to drop a small fortune to edit high-quality video. You just have to know what you are doing and understand the trade-offs as they arise.

©2017 Oliver Peters

Customize Premiere Pro with Workspaces

Most days I find myself in front of Adobe Premiere Pro CC, both by choice and by the jobs I’m booked on. Yes, I know, for some it’s got bugs and flaws, but for me it’s generally well-behaved. Given the choices out there, Premiere Pro feels the most natural to me for an efficient editing workflow.

Part of what makes Premiere Pro work for me is the ability to customize and fine-tune the user interface layout for the way I like to work or the tasks at hand. This is made possible by Adobe’s use of panels for the various tools and windows within the interface. These panels can float or be docked, stacked, or tabbed in a wonderfully large range of configuration possibilities. The Adobe CC applications come with a set of preset workspaces, but these can be customized and augmented as needed. I won’t belabor this post with an in-depth explanation of workspaces, because there are three very good explanations over at PremiereBro. (Click these links for Post 1, Post 2, and Post 3). My discussion with Simon Ubsdell made me think the topic would make a good blog post here, too.

It all starts with displays

I started my NLE journey with Avid and in the early days, two screens (preferably of a matching size) were essential. Bins on the left with viewers and timeline on the right. However, in the intervening years, screen resolution has greatly increased and developers have made their UIs work on dual and single-screen configurations. Often today, two screens can actually be too much. For example, if you have two side-by-side 27” (or larger) displays, the distance from the far left to the far right is pretty large. This makes your view of the record window quite a bit off-center. To counter-balance this issue, in a number of set-ups, I’ve taken to working with two different sized displays: a centered 27”, plus a smaller 20” display to the left. Sometimes I’ll have a broadcast display to the right. The left and right displays are at an angle, which means that my main working palette – the viewers and timeline – are dead-center on the display in front of me.

I also work with a laptop from time to time, as well as do some jobs in Final Cut Pro X. Generally a laptop is going to be the only available display and FCPX is well-optimized for single-screen operation. As a result, I’ve started to play around with working entirely on a single display – only occasionally using the landscape of the secondary display on my left when really needed. The more I work this way, the more I find that I can work almost entirely on one screen, if that screen offers a decent resolution.

So in order to optimize my workflow, I’ve created a number of custom Premiere Pro workspaces to serve my needs. (Click any of these images to see the enlarged view.)

Edit layout 1

This is the classic two-screen layout. Bins on the left and dual-viewer/timeline on the right. I use this when I have a lot of footage and need to tab a number of bins or expand a bin to see plenty of list details or thumbnails.

Edit layout 2

This layout collapses the classic layout onto a single screen, with the project panel, viewers and timeline.

Edit layout 3

This layout is the one I use most often, because most of what I need is neatly grouped as a tab or a stack on the left and right sides of a single viewer window. Note that there are actually source and record viewers, but they are stacked behind each other. So if I load a clip or match frame from the timeline, the source viewer becomes foremost for me to work with. Do an edit or go back to the timeline and the viewer switches back to the record side.

By tabbing panels on the left side, I can select the panel needed at the time. There is a logical order to what is on the left or right side. For instance, scopes are left and Lumetri Color controls on the right – thus, both can be open. Or I can drag an effect from the right pane’s Effects palette onto the Effects Control panel on the left.

Edit layout 4

This is the most minimalist of my workspaces. Just the viewers and timeline. Anything else can be opened as a floating window for temporary access. The point of this workspace is 100% focus on the timeline, with everything else hidden.

Edit layout 5

This workspace is designed for the “pancake timeline” style of editing. For example, build a “selects” timeline and then pull from that down to your main editing timeline.

Edit layout 6

This is another dual-display layout optimized for color correction. Lumetri Color and Effects Control panel flanking the viewer, with the Lumetri Scopes fullscreen on the lefthand monitor.

There are certainly plenty of other ways you can configure a workspace to suit your style. Some Premiere Pro editors like to use the secondary screen to display the timeline panel fullscreen. Or maybe use it to spread out their audio track mixer. Hence the beauty of Adobe’s design – you can make it as minimal or complex as you like. There is no right or wrong approach – simply whatever works to improve your editing efficiency.

Note: Footage shown within these UI screen grabs is courtesy of Imagine Dragons and Adobe from the Make the Cut Contest.

©2017 Oliver Peters