Generalists versus Specialists

“Jack of all trades, master of none” is a quote most are familiar with. But the complete quote “Jack of all trades, master of none, but oftentimes better than master of one” actually has quite the opposite perceived meaning. In the world of post production you have Jacks and Jills of all trades (generalists) and masters of one (specialists). While editors are certainly specialized in storytelling, I would consider them generalists when comparing their skillset to those of other specialists, such as visual effects artists, colorists, and audio engineers. Editors often touch on sound, effects, and color in a more general (often temp) way to get client approval. The others have to deliver the best, final results within a single discipline. Editors have to know the tools of editing, but not the nitty gritty of color correction or visual effects.

This is closely tied to the Pareto Principle, which most know as the 80/20 Rule. This principle states that 80% of the consequences come from 20% of the causes, but it’s been applied in various ways. When talking about software development, the 80/20 Rule predicts that 80% of the users are going to use 20% of the features, while only 20% of users will find a need for the other features. The software developer has to decide whether the target customer is the generalist (the 80% user) or the specialist (the 20% user). If the generalist is the target, then the challenge is to add some specialized features to service the advanced user without creating a bloated application that no one will use.

Applying these concepts to editing software development

When looking at NLEs, the first question to ask is, “Who is defined as a video editor today?” I would separate editors into three groups. One group would be the “I have to do it all” group, which generates most of what we see on local TV, corporate videos, YouTube, etc. These are multi-discipline generalists who have neither the time nor interest in dealing with highly specialized software. In the case of true one-man bands, the skill set also includes videography, plus location lighting and sound.

The “top end” – national and international commercials, TV series, and feature films – could be split into two groups: craft (aka film or offline) editors and finishing (aka online) editors. Craft editors are specialists in molding the story, but generalists when it comes to working software. Their technical skills don’t have to be the best, but they need to have a solid understanding of visual effects, sound, and color, so that they can create a presentable rough cut with temp elements. The finishing editor’s role is to take the final elements from sound, color, and the visual effects houses, and assemble the final deliverables. A key talent is quality control and attention to detail; therefore, they have no need to understand dedicated color, sound, or effects applications, unless they are also filling one of these roles.

My motivation for writing this post stemmed from an open letter to Tim Cook, which many editors have signed – myself included. Editors have long been fans of Apple products and many gravitated from Avid Media Composer to Apple Final Cut Pro 1-7. However, when Apple reimagined Final Cut and dropped Final Cut Studio in order to launch Final Cut Pro X many FCP fans were in shock. FCPX lacked a number of important features at first. A lot of these elements have since been added back, but that development pace hasn’t been fast enough for some, hence the letter. My wishlist for new features is quite small. I recognize Final Cut for what it is in the Apple ecosystem. But I would like to see Apple work to raise the visibility of Final Cut Pro within the broader editing community. That’s especially important when the decision of which editing application to use is often not made by editors.

Blackmagic Design DaVinci Resolve – the über-app for specialists

This brings me to Resolve. Editors point to Blackmagic’s aggressive development pace and the rich feature set. Resolve is often viewed as the greener pasture over the hill. I’m going to take a contrarian’s point of view. I’ve been using Resolve since it was introduced as Mac software and recently graded a feature film that was cut on Resolve by another editor.

Unfortunately, the experience was more problematic than I’ve had with grades roundtripped to Resolve from other NLEs. Its performance as an editor was quite slow when trying to move around in the timeline, replace shots, or trim clips. Resolve wouldn’t be my first NLE choice when compared to Premiere Pro, Media Composer, or Final Cut Pro. It’s a complex program by necessity. The color management alone is enough to trip up even experienced editors who aren’t intimately familiar with what the various settings do with the image.

DaVinci Resolve is an all-in-one application that integrates editing (2 different editing models), color correction (aka grading), Fusion visual effects, and the Fairlight DAW. Historically, all-in-ones have not had a great track record in the market. Other such über-apps would include Avid|DS and Autodesk Smoke. Avid pulled the plug on DS and Autodesk changed their business model for the Flame/Smoke/Lustre product family into subscription. Neither DS nor Smoke as a standalone application moved the needle for market share.

At its core, Resolve is a grading application with Fusion and Fairlight added in later. Color, effects, and audio mixing are all specialized skills and the software is designed so that each specialist if comfortable with the toolset presented on those pages/modes. I believe Blackmagic has been attempting to capitalize on Final Cut editor discontent and create the mythical “FCP8” or “FC Extreme” that many wanted. However, adding completely new and disparate functions to an application that at its core is designed around color correction can make it quite unwieldy. Beginning editors are never going to touch most of what Resolve has to offer and the specialists would rather have a dedicated specialized tool, like Nuke, After Effects, or Pro Tools.

Apple Final Cut Pro – reimagining modern workflows for generalists

Apple makes software for generalists. Pages, Numbers, Keynote, Photos, GarageBand, and iMovie are designed for that 80%. Apple also creates advanced software for the more demanding user under the ProApps banner (professional applications). This is still “generalist” software, but designed for more complex workflows. That’s where Final Cut Pro, Motion, Compressor, and Logic Pro fit.

Apple famously likes to “skate to where the puck will be” and having control over hardware, operating system, and software gives the teams special incite to develop software that is optimized for the hardware/OS combo. As a broad-based consumer goods company Apple also understands market trends. In the case of iPhones and digital photography it also plays a huge role in driving trends.

When Apple launched Final Cut Pro X the goal was an application designed for simplified, modernized workflows – even if “Hollywood” wasn’t quite ready. This meant walking away from the comprehensive “suite of tools” concept (Final Cut Studio). They chose to focus on a few applications that were better equipped for where the wider market of content creators was headed – yet, one that could still address more sophisticated needs, albeit in a different way.

This reimagining of Final Cut Pro had several aspects to it. One was to design an application that could easily be used on laptops and desktop systems and was adaptable to single and dual screen set-ups. It also introduced workflows based on metadata to improve edit efficiency. It was intended as a platform with third parties filling in the gaps. This means you need to augment FCP to cover a few common industry workflows. In short, FCP is designed to appeal to a broad spectrum of today’s “professionals” and not how one might have defined that term in the early 1990s, when nonlinear editing first took hold.

For a developer, it gets down to who the product is marketed towards and which new features to prioritize. Generalists are going to grow the market faster, hence a better return on development resources. The more complex an application becomes, the more likely it is to have bugs or break when the hardware or OS is updated. Quality assurance testing (QA) expands exponentially with complexity.

Final thoughts

Do my criticisms of Resolve mean that it’s a bad application? No, definitely not! It’s powerful in the right hands, especially if you work within its left-to-right workflow (edit -> Fusion -> color -> Fairlight). But, I don’t think it’s the ideal NLE for craft editing. The tools are designed for a collection of specialists. Blackmagic has been on this path for a rather long time now and seem to be at a fork in the road. Maybe they should step back, start from a clean slate, and develop a fresh, streamlined version of Resolve. Or, split it up into a set of individual, focused applications.

So, is Final Cut Pro the ideal editing platform? It’s definitely a great NLE for the true generalist. I’m a fan and use it when it’s the appropriate tool for the job. I like that it’s a fluid NLE with a responsive UI design. Nevertheless, it isn’t the best fit for many circumstances. I work in a market and with clients that are invested in Adobe Creative Cloud workflows. I have to exchange project files and make sure plug-ins are all compatible. I collaborate with other editors and more than one of us often touches these projects.

Premiere Pro is the dominant NLE for me in this environment. It also clicks with how my mind works and feels natural to me. Although you hear complaints from some, Premiere has been quite stable for me in all my years of use. Premiere Pro hits the sweet spot for advanced editors working on complex productions without becoming overly complex. Product updates over the past year have provided new features that I use every day. However, if I were in New York or Los Angeles, that answer would likely be Avid Media Composer, which is why Avid maintains such dominance in broadcast operations and feature film post.

In the end, there is no right or wrong answer. If you have the freedom to choose, then assess your skills. Where do you fall on the generalist/specialist spectrum? Pick the application that best meets your needs and fits your mindset.

For another direct comparison check out this previous post.

©2022 Oliver Peters

Storage for Editors 

Storage is the heart of a modern post-production facility. The size and type of storage you pick can greatly impact the efficiency of the facility. Surprisingly the concerns and requirements around a storage network aren’t all that different, regardless of whether you’re a large or smaller post facility.

I recently spoke with industry veterans at Molinare in London and Republic Editorial in Dallas about how they’ve addressed storage needs. 

Check out my interview at postPerspective.

©2021 Oliver Peters

Project organization

Leading into the new year, it’s time to take a fresh look at a perennial subject. Whether you work as a solo editor or part of a team, having a plan for organizing your projects – along with a workflow for moving media though your system – will lead to success in being able to find and restore material when needed at a future date. For a day-to-day workflow, I rely on five standard applications: Post Haste, Hedge, Better Rename, DiskCatalogMaker, and Kyno. I work on Macs, but there are Windows versions or alternatives for each.

Proper project organization. Regardless of your NLE, it’s a good idea to create a project “silo” for each job on your hard drive, RAID, or networked storage (NAS). That’s a main folder for the job, with subfolders for the edit project files, footage, audio, graphics, documents, exports, etc. I use Post Haste to create a new set of project folders for each new project.

Post Haste uses default or custom templates that can include Adobe project files. This provides a common starting point for each new project based on a template that I’ve created. Using this template, Post Haste generates a new project folder with common subfolders. A template Premiere Pro project file with my custom bin structure is contained within the Post Haste template. When each new set of folders is created, this Premiere file is also copied.

In order to track productions, each job is assigned a number, which becomes part of the name structure assigned within Post Haste. The same name is applied to the Premiere Pro project file. Typically, the master folder (and Premiere project) for a new job created through Post Haste will be labelled according to this schema: 9999_CLIENT_PROJECT_DATE.

Dealing with source footage, aka rushes or dailies. The first thing you have to deal with on a new project is the source media. Most of the location shoots for my projects come back to me with around 1TB of media for a day’s worth of filming. That’s often from two or three cameras, recorded in a variety of codecs at 4K/UHD resolution and 23.98fps. Someone on location (DIT, producer, DP, other) has copied the camera cards to working SSDs, which will be reused on later productions. Hedge is used to copy the cards, in order to provide checksum copy verification.

I receive those SSDs and not the camera cards. The first step is to copy that media “as is” into the source footage subfolder for that project on the editing RAID or NAS. Once my copy is complete, those same SSDs are separately copied “as is” via Hedge to one or more Western Digital or Seagate portable drives. Theoretically, this is for a deep archive, which hopefully will never be needed. Once we have at least two copies of the media, these working SSDs can be reformatted for the next production. The back-up drives should be stored in a safe location on-premises or better yet, offsite.

Since video cameras don’t use a standard folder structure on the cards, the next step is to reorganize the copied media in the footage folder according to date, camera, and roll. This means ripping media files out of their various camera subfolders. Within the footage folder, my subfolder hierarchy becomes shoot date (MMDDYY), then camera (A-CAM, B-CAM, etc), and then camera roll (A001, A002, etc). Media is located within the roll subfolder. Double-system audio recordings go into a SOUND folder for that date and follow this same hierarchy for sound rolls. When this reorganization is complete, I delete the leftover camera subfolders, such as Private, DCIM, etc.

It may be necessary to rename or append prefixes to file names in order to end up with completely unique file names within this project. That’s where Better Rename comes in. This is a Finder-level batch renaming tool. If a camera generates default names on a card, such as IMG_001, IMG_002 and so on, then renaming becomes essential. I try to preserve the original name in order to be able to trace the file back to back-up drives if I absolutely have to. Therefore, it’s best to append a prefix. I base this on project, date, camera, and roll. As an example, if IMG_001 was shot as part of the Bahamas project on December 20th, recorded by E-camera on roll seven, then the appended file would be named BAH1220E07_IMG_001.

Some camera codecs, like those used by drones and GoPros, are a beast for many NLEs to deal with. Proxy media is one way or you can transcode only the offending files. If you choose to transcode these files, then Compressor, Adobe Media Encoder, or Resolve are the best go-to applications. Transcode at the native file size and resolution into an optimized codec, like ProRes. Maintain log color spaces, because these optimized files become the new “camera” files in your edit. I will add separate folders for ORIG (camera original media) and PRORES (my transcoded, optimized files) within each camera roll folder. Only the ProRes media is to be imported into the NLE for editing.

Back-up! Do not proceed to GO! Now that you’ve spent all of this effort reorganizing, renaming, and transcoding media, you first want a back-up the files before starting to edit. I like to back up media to raw, removable, enterprise-grade HGST or Seagate hard drives. Over the years, I’ve accumulated a variety of drive sizes ranging from 2TB to now 8TB. Larger capacities are available, but 8TB is a cost-effective and manageable capacity. When placed into a Thunderbolt or USB drive dock, these function like any other local hard drive. 

When you’ve completed dealing with the media from the shoot, simply copy the whole job folder to a drive. You can store multiple projects on the same drive, depending on their capacity. This is an easy overnight process with most jobs, so it won’t impact your edit time. The point is to back up the newly organized version of your raw media. Once completed, you will have three copies of the source footage – the “as is” copy, the version on your RAID or NAS, and this back-up on the raw drive. After the project has been completed and delivered, load up the back-up drive and copy everything else from this job to that drive. This provides a “clone” of the complete job on both your RAID/NAS and the back-up drive.

In order to keep these back-up drives straight, you’ll need a catalog. At home, I’ve accumulated 12 drives thus far. At work we’ve accumulated over 200. I’ve found the easiest way to deal with this is an application called DiskCatalogMaker. It scans the drive and stores the file information in a catalog document. Each drive entry mimics what you see in the Finder, including folders, files, sizes, dates, and so on. The catalog document is searchable, which is why job numbers become important. It’s a good idea to periodically mount and spin up these drives to maintain reliability. Once a year is a minimum.

If you have sufficient capacity on your RAID or NAS, then you don’t want to immediately delete jobs and media when the work is done. In our case, once a job has been fully backed up, the job folder is moved into a BACKED UP folder on the NAS. This way we know when a job has been backed up, yet it is still easily retrieved should the client come back with revisions. Plus, you still have three total copies of the source media.

Other back-ups. I’ve talked a lot about backing up camera media, but what about other files? Generally files like graphics are supplied, so these are also backed up elsewhere. Plus they will get backed up on the raw drive when the job is done.

I also use Dropbox for interim back-ups of project files. Since a Premiere Pro project file is light and doesn’t carry media, it’s easy to back up in the cloud. At work, at the end of each day, each editor copies in-progress Premiere files to a company Dropbox folder. The idea is that in the event of some catastrophe, you could get your project back from Dropbox and then use the backed up camera drives to rebuild an edit. In addition, we also export and copy Resolve projects to Dropbox, as well as the DiskCatalogMaker catalog documents.

Whenever possible, audio stems and textless masters are exported for each completed job. These are stored with the final masters. Often it’s easier to make revisions using these elements, than to dive back into a complex job after it’s been deeply archived. Our NAS contains a separate top-level folder for all finished masters, in addition to the master subfolder within each project. When a production is done, the master file is copied into this other folder, resulting in two sets of the master files on the NAS. And by “master” I generally mean a final ProRes file along with a high-quality MP4 file. The MP4 is most often what the client will use as their “master,” since so much of our work these days is for the web. Therefore, both NAS locations hold a ProRes and an MP4. That’s in addition to the masters stored on the raw, back-up drive.

Final, Final revised, no really, this one is Final. Let’s address file naming conventions. Every editor knows the “danger” of calling something Final. Clients love to make changes until they no longer can. I work on projects that have running changes as adjustments are made for use in new presentations. Calling any of these “Final” never works. Broadcast commercials are usually assigned definitive ISCI codes, but that’s rarely the case with non-broadcast projects. The process that works for us is simply to use version numbers and dates. This makes sense and is what software developers use.

We use this convention: CLIENT_PROJECTNAME_VERSION_DATE_MODIFIER. As an example, if you are editing a McDonald’s Big Mac :60 commercial, then a final version might be labelled “MCD_Big Mac 60_v13_122620.” A slight change on that same day would become “MCD_Big Mac 60_v14_122620.” We use the “modifier” to designate variations from the norm. Our default master files are formatted as 1080p at 23.98 with stereo audio. So a variation exported as 4K/UHD or 720p or with a 5.1 surround mix would have the added suffix of “_4K” or “_720p” or “_51MIX.”

Some projects go through many updates and it’s often hard to know when a client (working remotely) considers a version truly done. They are supposed to tell you that, but they often just don’t. You sort of know, because the changes stop coming and a presentation deadline has been met. Whenever that happens, we export a ProRes master file plus high-quality MP4 files. The client may come back a week later with some revisions. Then, new ProRes and MP4 files are generated. Since version numbers are maintained, the ProRes master files will also have different version numbers and dates and, therefore, you can differentiate one from the other. Both variations may be valid and in use by the client.

Asset management. The last piece of software that comes in handy for us is Kyno. This is a lightweight asset management tool that we use to scan and find media on our NAS. Our method of organization makes it relatively easy to find things just by working in the Finder. However, if you are looking for that one piece of footage and need to be able to identify it visually, then that’s where Kyno is helpful. It’s like Adobe Bridge on steroids. One can organize and sort using the usual database tools, but it also has a very cool “drill down” feature. If you want to browse media within a folder without stepping through a series of subfolders, simply enable “drill down” and you can directly browse all media that’s contained therein. Kyno also features robust transcode and “send to” features designed with NLEs in mind. Prep media for an edit or create proxies? Simply use Kyno as an alternative to other options.

Hopefully this recap has provided some new workflow pointers for 2021. Good luck!

©2021 Oliver Peters

Drive – Postlab’s Virtual Storage Volume

Postlab is the only service designed for multi-editor, remote collaboration with Final Cut Pro X. It works whether you have a team collaborating on-premises within a facility or spread out at various locations around the globe. Since the initial launch, Hedge has also extended Postlab’s collaboration to Premiere Pro.

When using Postlab, projects containing Final Cut Pro X libraries or Premiere Pro project files are hosted on Hedge’s servers. But, the media lives on local drives or shared storage and not “in the cloud.” When editors work remotely, media needs to be transferred to them by way of “sneakernet,” High Tail, WeTransfer, or other methods.

Hedge has now solved that media issue with the introduction of Drive, a virtual storage volume for media, documents, and other files. Postlab users can utilize the original workflow and continue with local media – or they can expand remote capabilities with the addition of Drive storage. Since it functions much like DropBox, Drive can also be used by team members who aren’t actively engaged in editing. As a media volume, files on Drive are also accessible to Avid Media Composer and DaVinci Resolve editors.

Drive promises significantly better performance than a general business cloud service, because it has been fine-tuned for media. The ability to use Drive is included with each Postlab plan; but, storage costs are based on a flat rate per month for the amount of storage you need. Unlike other cloud services, there are no hidden egress charges for downloads. If you only want to use Drive as a single user, then Hedge’s Postlab Solo or Pro plan would be the place to start.

How Drive works

Once Drive storage has been added to an account, each team member simply needs to connect to Drive from the Postlab interface. This mounts a Drive volume on the desktop just like any local hard drive. In addition, a cache file is stored at a designated location. Hedge recommends using a fast SSD or RAID for this cache file. NAS or SAN network volumes cannot be used.

After the initial set up, the operation is similar to DropBox’s SmartSync function. When an editor adds media to the local Drive volume, that media is uploaded to Hedge’s cloud storage. It will then sync to all other editors’ Drive volumes. Initially those copies of the media are only virtual. The first time a file is played by a remote team member, it is streamed from the cloud server. As it streams, it is also being added the local Drive cache. Every file that has been fully played is now stored locally within the cache for faster access in the future.

Hedge feels that latency is as or more important than outright connection speed for a fluid editing experience. They recommend wired, rather than wi-fi, internet connections. However, I tested the system using wi-fi with office speeds of around 575Mbps down / 38Mbps up. This is a business connection and was fast enough to stream 720p MP4 and 1080p ProRes Proxy files with minimal hiccups on the initial streamed playback. Naturally, after it was locally cached, access was instantaneous.

From the editor’s point of view, virtual files still appear in the FCPX event browser as if local and the timeline is populated with clips. Files can also be imported or dragged in from Drive as if they are local. As you play the individual clips or the timeline from within FCPX or Premiere, the files become locally cached. All in all, the editing experience is very fluid.

In actual practice

The process works best with lightweight, low-res files and not large camera originals. That is possible, too, of course, but not very efficient. Drive and the Hedge servers support most common media files, but not a format like REDCODE raw. As before, each editor will need to have the same effects, LUTs, Motion templates, and fonts installed for proper collaboration.

I did run into a few issues, which may be related to the recent 10.4.9 Final Cut update. For example, the built-in proxy workflow is not very stable. I did get it to work. Original files were on a NAS volume (not Drive) and the generated proxies (H.264 or ProRes Proxy) were stored on the Drive volume of the main system. The remote editing system would only get the proxies, synced through Drive. In theory that should work, but it was hit or miss. When it worked, some LUTs, like the standard ARRI Log-C LUTs, were not applied on the remote system in proxy mode. Also the “used” range indicator lines for the event browser clips were present on the original system, but not the remote system. Other than these few quirks, everything was largely seamless.

My suggested workflow would be to generate editing proxies outside of the NLE and copy those to Drive. H.264 or ProRes Proxy with matching audio configurations to the original camera files work well. Treat these low-res files as original media and import them into Final Cut Pro X or Premiere Pro for editing. Once the edit is locked, go to the main system and transfer the final sequence to a local FCPX Library or Premiere Pro project for finishing. Relink that sequence to the original camera files for grading and delivery. Alternatively, you could export an FCPXML or XML file for a Resolve roundtrip.

One very important point to know is that the entire Postlab workflow is designed around team members staying logged into the account. This maintains the local caches. It’s OK to quit the Postlab application, plus eject and reconnect the Drive volume. However, if you log out, those local caches for editing files and Drive media will be flushed. The next time you log back in, connection to Drive will need to be re-established, Drive information must be synced again, and clips within FCPX or Premiere Pro will have to be relinked. So stay logged in for the best experience.

Additional features

Thanks to the Postlab interface, Drive offers features not available for regular hard drives. For example, any folder within Drive can be bookmarked in Postlab. Simply click on a Bookmark to directly open that folder. The Drop Off feature lets you generate a URL with an expiration date for any Bookmarked folder. Send that link to any non-team member, such as an outside contributor or client, and they will be able to upload additional media or other files to Drive. Once uploaded to Hedge’s servers, those files show up in Drive within the folder and will be synced to all team members.

Hedge offers even more features, including Mail Drop, designed for projects with too much media to efficiently upload. Ship Hedge a drive to copy dailies straight into their servers. Pick Up is another feature still in development. When updated, you will be able to select files on Drive, generate a Pick Up link, and send that to your client for download.

Editing with Drive and Postlab makes remote collaboration nearly like working on-site. The Hedge team is dedicated to expanding these capabilities with more services and broader NLE support. Given the state of post this year, these products are at the right time and place.

Check out this Soho Editors masterclass in collaboration using Postlab and Drive.

Originally written for FCP.co.

©2020 Oliver Peters

Apple Pivots – WWDC 2020

Monday saw Apple’s first virtual WWDC keynote presentation. This was a concise, detail-packed 108 minute webcast covering the range of operating system changes affecting all of Apple’s product lines. I shared my initial thoughts and reactions here and here. If you want some in-depth info, then John Gruber’s follow-up interview with Craig Federighi and Greg Joswiak of Apple is a good place to start. With the dust settling, I see three key takeaways from WWDC for Mac users.

Apple Silicon

Apple Silicon becomes the third processor transition for the Mac. Apple has been using Intel CPUs for 15 years. This shift moves Mac computers to the same CPU family as the mobile platforms. The new CPUs are based on Arm SoC (system on chip) technology. Arm originally stood for Acorn RISC Machine and is a technology developed by Arm Holdings PLC. They license the technology to other companies who are then free to develop their own chip designs. As far as we know, the Apple Arm chips will be manufactured in foundries owned by TSMC in Taiwan. While any hardware shift can be disconcerting, the good news is that Apple already has more than a decade-long track record with these chips, thanks to the iPhone and iPad. (Click here for more details on RISC versus CISC chip architectures.)

macOS software demos were ostensibly shown on a Mac with 16GB RAM and operating on an A12Z Bionic chip – the same CPU as in the current iPad Pro. That’s an 8-core, 64-bit processor with an integrated GPU. It also includes cores for the Neural Engine, which Apple uses for machine learning functions.

Apple is making available a developer transition kit (DTK) that includes a Mac mini in this configuration. This would imply that was the type of machine used for the keynote demo. It’s hard to know if that was really the case. Nevertheless, performance appeared good – notably with Final Cut Pro X showing three streams of 4K ProRes at full resolution. Not earth-shattering, but decent if that is actually the level of machine that was used. Federighi clarified in the Gruber interview that this DTK is only to get developers comfortable with the new chip, as well as the new OS version. It is not intended to represent a machine that is even close to what will eventually be shipped. Nor will the first shipping Apple Silicon chips in Macs be A12Z CPUs.

The reason to shift to Arm-based CPUs is the promise of better performance with a lower power consumption. Lower power also means less heat, which is great for phones and tablets. That’s also great for laptops, but less critical on desktop computers. This means overclocking is also a viable option. According to Apple, the transition to Apple Silicon will take two years. Presumably that means by the end of two years, all new Macs released going forward will use Arm-based CPUs.

Aside from the CPU itself, what about Thunderbolt and the GPU? The A12Z has an integrated graphics unit, just like the Intel chip. However, for horsepower Apple has been using AMD – and in years past, NVIDIA. Will the relationship with AMD continue or will Apple Silicon also cover the extra graphics grunt? Thunderbolt is technology licensed by Intel. Will that continue and will Apple be able to integrate Thunderbolt into its new Macs? The developer Mac mini does not include Thunderbolt 3 ports. Can we expect some type of new i/o format in these upcoming Macs, like USB 4, for example? (Click here for another concise hardware overview.)

macOS Big Sur – Apple dials it to 11

The second major reveal (for Mac users) was the next macOS after Catalina – Big Sur. This is the first OS designed natively for Arm-based Macs, but is coded to be compatible with Intel, too. It will also be out by the end of the year. Big Sur is listed as OS version 11.0, thus dropping the OS X (ten) product branding. A list of compatible Macs has been posted by Apple and quite a few users are already running a beta version of Big Sur on their current Intel Macs. According to anecdotes I’ve seen and heard, most indicate that it’s stable and the majority of applications (not all) work just fine.

Apple has navigated such transitions before – particularly from PowerPC to Intel. (The PowerPC used a RISC architecture.) They are making developer tools available (Universal 2) that will allow software companies to compile apps that run natively on both Intel and/or Arm platforms. In addition, Big Sur will include Rosetta 2, a technology designed to run Intel apps under native emulation. In some cases, Apple says that Rosetta 2 will actually convert some apps into native versions upon installation. Boot Camp appears to be gone, but virtualization of Linux was mentioned. This makes sense because some Linux distributions already will run on Arm processors. We’ll have to wait and see whether virtualization will also apply to Windows. Federighi did appear to say that directly booting into a different OS would not be possible.

Naturally, users want to know if their favorite application is going to be ready on day one. Apple has been working closely with Adobe and Microsoft to ensure that Creative Cloud and Office applications will run natively. Those two are biggies. If you can’t run Photoshop or Illustrator correctly, then you’ve lost the entire design community – photographers, designers, web developers, ad agencies, etc. Likewise, if Word, Excel, or Powerpoint don’t work, you’ve lost every business enterprise. Apologies to video editors, but those two segments are more important to Mac sales than all the video apps combined.

Will the operating systems merge?

Apple has said loudly and clearly that they don’t intend to merge macOS and iOS/iPadOS. Both the Mac and mobile businesses are very profitable and those products fulfill vastly different needs. It doesn’t make any business sense to mash them together in some way. You can’t run Big Sur on an iPad Pro nor can you run iPadOS 14 on a Mac. Yet, they are more than cousins under the hood. You will be able to run iOS/iPadOS applications, such as games, on an Arm-based Mac with Big Sur. This is determined by the developer, because they will retain the option to have some apps be iOS-only at the time the application is entered into the App Store.

Technology aside, the look, feel, style, and design language is now very close between these two operating system branches. Apple has brought back widgets to the Mac. You now have notification and control centers on all platforms that function in the same manner. The macOS Finder and iPad Files windows look similar to each other. Overall, the design language has been unified as typified by a return to more color and a common chiclet design to the icons. After all, nearly ever Apple product has a similar style with rounded corners, going back to the original 1984 Mac.

Are we close to actually having true macOS on an iPad Pro? Or a Mac with touch or Apple Pencil support? Probably not. I know a lot of Final Cut Pro X users have speculated about seeing “FCPX Lite” on the iPad, especially since we have Adobe’s Rush and LumaTouch’s LumaFusion. The speculation is that some stripped-down version of FCPX on the iPad should be a no-brainer. Unfortunately iPads lack a proper computer-style file system, standard i/o, and the ability to work with external storage. So, there are still reasons to optimize operating systems and applications differently for each hardware form factor. But a few years on – who knows?

Should you buy a Mac now?

If you need a Mac to get your work done and can’t wait, then by all means do so. Especially if you are a “pro” user requiring beefier hardware and performance. On the other hand, if you can hold off, you should probably wait until the first new machines are out in the wild. Then we’ll all have a better idea of price and performance. Apple still plans to release more Intel Macs within the next two years. The prevailing wisdom is that the current state of Apple’s A-series chips will dictate lower-end consumer Macs first. Obviously a new 12″ MacBook and the MacBook Air would be prime candidates. After that, possibly a Mac mini or even a smaller iMac.

If that in fact is what will happen, then high-end MacBook Pros, iMacs, iMac Pros, and the new Mac Pro will all continue running Intel processors until comparable (or better) Apple Silicon chips become available. Apple is more willing to shake things up than any other tech company. In spite of that, they have a pretty good track record of supporting existing products for quite a few years. For example, Big Sur is supposed to be compatible with MacBook Pros and Mac Pros going back to 2013. Even though the FCPX product launch was rough, FCP7 continued to work for many years after that through several OS updates.

I just don’t agree with people who grouse that Apple abandons its existing costumers whenever one of these changes happen. History simply does not bear that out. Change is always a challenge – more for some types of users than others. But we’ve been here before. This change shouldn’t cause too much hand-wringing, especially if Apple Silicon delivers on its promise.

Click here for a nice recap of some of the other announcements from WWDC.

©2020 Oliver Peters