Rams

If you are a fan of the elegant, minimalist design of Apple products, then you have seen the influence of Dieter Rams. The renowned, German industrial designer, associated with functional and unobtrusive design, is known for the iconic consumer products he developed for Braun, as well as his Ten Principles for Good Design. Dieter Rams is the subject of Rams, a new documentary film by Gary Hustwit (Helvetica, Objectified, Urbanized).

This has been a labor of love for Hustwit and partially funded through a Kickstarter campaign. In a statement to the website Designboom, Huswit says, “This film is an opportunity to celebrate a designer whose work continues to impact us and preserve an important piece of design history. I’m also interested in exploring the role that manufactured objects play in our lives and, by extension, the relationship we have with the people who design them. We hope to dig deeper into Rams’ untold story – to try and understand a man of contradictions by design. I want the film to get past the legend of Dieter. I want it to get into his philosophy, process, inspirations, and even his regrets.” 

Hustwit has worked on the documentary for the past three years and premiered it in New York at the end of September. The film is currently on the road for a series of international premiere screenings until the end of the year. I recently had a conversation with Kayla Sklar, the young editor how had the opportunity to tackle this as her first feature film.

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[OP] Please give me a little background about how you got into editing and then became connected with this project.

[KS] I moved to New York in 2014 after college to pursue working in theater administration for non-profit, Off Broadway theater companies. But at 25, I had sort of a quarter-life crisis and realized that wasn’t what I wanted to do at all. I knew I had to make a career change. I had done some video editing in high school with [Apple] iMovie and in college with [Apple] Final Cut Pro 7 and had enjoyed that. So I enrolled at The Edit Center in Brooklyn. They have an immersive, six-week-long program where you learn the art of editing by working with actual footage from real projects. Indie filmmakers working in documentaries and narrative films, who don’t have a lot of money, can submit their film to The Edit Center. Two are chosen per semester. 12 to 16 students are given scenes and get to work with the director. They give us feedback and at the end, we present a finished rough cut. This process gives us a sense of how to edit.

I knew I could definitely teach myself [Adobe] Premiere Pro, and probably figure out Avid [Media Composer], but I wanted to know if I would even enjoy the process of working with a director. I took the course in 2016 thinking I would pursue narrative films, because it felt the most similar to the world I had come from. But I left the course with an interest in documentary editing. I liked the puzzle-solving aspect of it. It’s where my skillset best aligned.

Afterwards, I took a few assistant editing jobs and eventually started as an assistant editor with Film First, which is owned by Jessica Edwards and Gary Hustwit. That’s how I got connected with Gary. I was assisting on a number of his projects, including working with some of the Rams footage and doing a few rough assemblies for him. Then last year he asked me to be the editor of the film. So I started shifting my focus exclusively to Rams at the beginning of this year. Gary has been working on it since 2015 – shooting on and off for three years. It just premiered in late September, but we even shot some pick-ups in Germany as late as late August / early September.

[OP] So you were working solidly on the film for about nine months. At what point did you lock the cut?

[KS] (laugh) Even now we’re still tinkering. We get more feedback from the screenings and are learning what things are working and aren’t working. The story was locked four days before the New York premiere, but we’re making small changes to things.

[OP] Documentary editing can encompass a variety of structures – narrator-driven, a single subject, a collection of interviewees, etc. What approach did you take with Rams?

[KS] Most of the film is in Dieter Rams’ own words. Gary’s other films have a huge cast of characters. But Gary wanted to make this film different from that and more streamlined. His original concept was that it was going to be Dieter as the only interview footage and you might meet other characters in the verité. But Gary realized that wasn’t going to work, simply because Dieter is a very humble man and he wasn’t really talking about his impact on design. We knew that we needed to give the film a larger context. We needed to bring in other people to tell how influential he has been.

[OP] Obviously a documentary like this has no narrative script to follow. Understanding the interview subject’s answers is critical for the editor in order to build the story arc. I understand that much of the film is in a foreign language. So what was your workflow to edit the film?

[KS] Right. So, the vast majority of the film is in German and a little bit in Japanese, both with subtitles. Maybe 25% is in English, but we’re creating it primarily with an English-speaking audience in mind. I know pretty much no German, except words from Sound of Music and Cabaret. We had a great team of translators on this project, with German transcripts broken down by paragraph and translated into English. I had a two-column set-up with German on one side and English on the other. Before I joined the project, there was an assistant who input titles directly into Premiere – putting subtitles over the dailies with the legacy titler. That was the only way I would be able to even get a rough assembly or ‘radio edit’ of what we wanted.

When you edit an English-speaking documentary, you often splice together two parts of a longer sentence to form a complete and concise thought. But German grammar is really complicated. I don’t think I really grasped how much I was taking on when I first started tackling the project. So I would build a sentence that was pretty close from the transcripts. Thank God for Google Translate, because I would put in my constructed sentence and hope that it spit out something pretty close to what we were going for. And that’s how we did the first rough cut.

Then we had an incredible woman, Katharina Kruse-Ramey, come in. She is a native German speaker living here in New York. She came in for a full eight or nine hours and picked through the edit with a fine tooth comb. For instance, “You can’t use this verb tense with this noun.” That sort of thing. She was hugely helpful and this film wouldn’t have been able to happen without Katharina. We knew then that a German speaker could watch this film and it would make sense! We also had another native German speaker, Eugen Braeunig, who was our archival researcher. He was great for the last minute pick-ups that were shot, when we couldn’t go through the longer workflow.

[OP] I presume you received notes and comments back from Dieter Rams on the cut. What has his response been?

[KS] The film premiered at the Milano Design Film Festival a few weeks ago and Dieter came to that. It was his first time seeing the finished product. From what I’ve heard, he really liked it! As much as one can like seeing themselves on a large screen, I suppose. We had sent him a rough cut a few months ago and in true analytical fashion, the notes that we got back from him were just very specific technical details about dates and products and not about overall storytelling. He really was quite willing to give Gary complete control over the filmmaking process. There was a lot of trust between the two of them.

[OP] Did you cut the film to temp music from the beginning or add music later? I understand that the prolific electronic musician and composer, Brian Eno (The Lego Batman Movie, T2 Trainspotting, The Simpsons), created the soundtrack. What was that like?

[KS] The structure of this film has more breathing room than a lot of docs might have. We really thought about the fact that we needed to give viewers a break from reading subtitles. We didn’t want to go more than ten minutes of reading at a time. So we purposely built in moments for the audience to digest and reflect on all that information. And that’s where Brian’s music was hugely important for us.

We actually didn’t start really editing the film until we had gotten the music back from Brian. I’ve been told that he doesn’t ever score to picture. We sent him some raw footage and he came back with about 16 songs that were inspired by the footage. When you have that gorgeous Brian Eno music, you know that you’re going to have moments where you can just sit back and enjoy the sheer beauty of the moment. Once we had the music in, everything just clicked into place.

[OP] The editor is integral to creating the story structure of a documentary, more so than narrative films – almost as if they are another writer. Tell me a bit about the structure for Rams.

[KS] This film is really not structured the way you would probably structure a normal doc. As I said earlier, we very purposefully put reading breaks in, either through English scenes or with Eno’s music. We had no interest in telling this story linearly. We jump back and forth. One plot line is the chronology of Dieter’s career. Then there’s this other, perhaps more important story, which is Dieter today.  His thoughts on the current state of design and the world. He’s still very active in giving talks and lectures. There’s a company called Vitsoe that makes a lot of his products and he travels to London to give input on their designs. That was the second half of the story and those are interspersed.

[OP] I presume you went outside for finishing services – sound, color correction, and so on. But did the subtitles take on any extra complexity, since they were such an important visual element?

[KS] There are three components to the post. We did an audio mix at one post house; there was a color correction pass at another; and we also had an animation studio – Trollbäck – working with us. There is a section in the film that we knew had to be visually very different and had to convey information in a different way than we had done in any other part of the film. So we gave Trollbäck that five-minute-long sequence. And they also did our opening titles.

We had thought about a stylistic treatment to the subtitles. There were two fonts that Trollbäck had used in their animation. Our initial intent was to use that in our subtitles. We did use one of those treatments in our titles and product credits. For the subtitles, we spent days trying out different looks. Are we going to shadow it or are we using outlines? What point font? What’s the kerning on it? There was going to be so much reading that we knew we had to do the titles thoughtfully. At the end of the day, we knew Helvetica was going to be the easiest (laugh)! We had tried the outline, but some of the internal space in the letters, like an ‘o’ or an ‘e’, looked closed off. We ended up going with a drop shadow. Dieter’s home is almost completely white, so there’s a lot of white space in the film. We used shadows, which looked a little softer, but still quite readable. Those were all built in Premiere’s legacy title tool.

[OP] You are in New York, which is a big Avid Media Composer town. So what was the thought process in deciding to cut this film in Adobe Premiere Pro?

[KS] When I came on-board, the project was already in Premiere. At that point I had been using Avid quite a lot since leaving The Edit Center, which teaches their editing course in Avid. I had taught myself Premiere and I might have tried to transfer the project to Avid, but there was already so much done in terms of the dailies with the subtitles. The thought of going back and spending maybe 50 hours worth of manual subtitling that didn’t migrate over correctly just seemed like a total nightmare. And I was happy to use Premiere. Had I started the project from scratch, I might have used Avid, because it’s the tool that I felt fastest on. Premiere was perfectly fine for the film that we were doing. Plus, if there were days when Gary wanted to tinker around in the project and look at things, he’s much more familiar with Premiere than he is with Avid. He also knows the other Adobe tools, so it made more sense to continue with the same family of creative products that he already knew and used.

Maybe it’s this way with the tool you learn first, but I really like Avid and I feel that I’m faster with it than with Premiere. It’s just the way my brain likes to edit things. But I would be totally happy to edit in Premiere again, if that’s what worked best for a project and what the director wanted. It was great that we didn’t have to transcode our archival footage, because of how Premiere can handle media. Definitely that was helpful, because we had some mixed frame rates and resolutions.

[OP] A closing question. This is your first feature film and with such an influential subjective. What impact did it have on you?

[KS] Dieter has Ten Principles for Good Design. He built them to talk about product design and as a way for him to judge how a product ideally should be made. I had these principles taped to my wall by my desk. His products are very streamlined, elegant, and clean. The framework should be neutral enough that they can convey what the intention was without bells-and-whistles. He wasn’t interested in adding a feature that was unnecessary. I really wanted to evoke those principles with the editing. Had the film been cluttered with extraneous information, or was self-aggrandizing, I think when we revealed the principles to the audience, they would have thought, “Wait a minute, this film isn’t doing that!” We felt that the structure of the film had to serve his principles well, wherever appropriate.

His final principle is ‘Good Design is as Little Design as Possible.’ We joked that ‘Good Filmmaking is as Little Filmmaking as Possible.’ We wanted the audience to be able to draw their own conclusions about Dieter’s work and how that translates into their daily lives. A viewer could walk away knowing what we were trying to accomplish without someone having to tell them what we were trying to accomplish.

There were times when I really didn’t know if I could do it. Being 26 and editing a feature film was daunting. Looking at those principles kept me focused on what the meat of the film’s structure should be. That made me realize how lucky we are to have had a designer who really took the time to think about principles that can be applied to a million different subjects. At one of these screenings someone came up to us, who had become a UI designer for software, in part, because of Dieter. He told us, “I read Dieter’s principles in a book and I realized these can be applied to how people interact with software.” They can be applied to a million different things and we certainly applied it to the edit.

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Gary Hustwit will tour Rams internationally and in various US cities through December. After that time it will be available in digital form through Film First.

Click here to learn more about Dieter Rams’ Ten Principles for Good Design.

©2018 Oliver Peters

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The Old Man & the Gun

Stories of criminal exploits have long captivated the American public. But no story is quirkier than that of Forrest Silva “Woody” Tucker. He was a lifelong bank robber and prison escape artist who was in and out of prison. His most famous escape came in 1979 from San Quentin State Prison. The last crimes were a series of bank robberies around the Florida retirement community where he lived. He was captured in 2000 and died in prison in 2004 at the age of 83. Apparently good at his job – he stole an estimated four million dollars over his lifetime – Tucker was aided by a set of older partners, dubbed the “Over the Hill Gang”. His success, in part, was because he tended to rob lower profile, local banks and credit unions. While he did carry a gun, it seems he never actually used it in any of the robberies.

The Old Man & the Gun is a semi-fictionalized version of Tucker’s story brought to the screen by filmmaker David Lowery (A Ghost Story, Pete’s Dragon, Ain’t Them Bodies Saints). It stars Robert Redford as Tucker, along with Danny Glover and Tom Waits as his gang. Casey Affleck plays John Hunt, a detective who is on his trail. Sissy Spacek is Jewel, a woman who takes an interest in Tucker. Lowery wrote the script in a romanticized style that is reminiscent of how outlaws of the old west are portrayed. The screenplay is based on a 2003 article in The New Yorker magazine by Dale Grann, which chronicled Tucker’s real-life exploits.

David Lowery is a multi-talented filmmaker with a string of editing credits. (He was his own editor on A Ghost Story.) But for this film, he decided to leave the editing to Lisa Zeno Churgin, A.C.E. (Dead Man Walking, Pitch Perfect, Cider House Rules, House of Sand and Fog), with whom he had previously collaborated on Pete’s Dragon. I recently had the opportunity to chat with Churgin about working on The Old Man & the Gun.

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[OP] Please tell me a bit about your take on the story and how the screenplay’s sequence ultimately translated into the finished film.

[LZC] The basis of Redford’s character is a boy who started out stealing a bicycle, went to reform school when he was 13, and it continued along that way for the rest of his life. Casey Affleck is a cop in the robbery division who takes it as a personal affront when the bank where he was trying to make a deposit was robbed. He makes it his mission to discover who did it, which he does. But because it’s a case that crosses state lines, the case gets taken over by the FBI. Casey’s character then continues the search on his own.  It’s a wonderful cat and mouse game. 

There are three storylines in the film. The story begins when Tucker is leaving the scene of a robbery and pulls over to the side of the road to help Jewel [Sissy Spacek] while evading the police on his trail. Their story provides a bit of a love interest.  The second storyline is that of the “Over the Hill Gang”. And the third storyline is the one between Tucker and Hunt. It’s not a particularly linear story, so we were always balancing these three storylines. Whenever it started to feel like we’d been away too long from a particular storyline and set of characters, it was time to switch gears.

Although David wrote the script, he wasn’t particularly overprotective of it. As in most films, we experimented a lot, moving scenes around to make those three main stories find their proper place. David dressed Redford in the same blue suit for the entire movie with occasional shirt or tie changes. This made it easier to shift things than when you have costume constraints. Often scenes ended up back where they started, but a lot of times they didn’t – just trying to find the right balance of those three stories. We had absolute freedom to experiment, and because David is a writer, director, and an editor in his own right, he really understands and appreciates the process.

The nature of this film was so unique, because it is of another time and place [the 1980s], but still modern in its own way. I also see it partly as an homage to Bob [Redford], because this is possibly his last starring role. Shooting on 16mm film certainly lends itself to another time and place. The score is a jazz score. That jazz motor places it in time, but also keeps it contemporary. As an aside, a nice touch is when Casey visits Redford in the hospital and he does a little ‘nose salute’ from The Sting, which was Casey’s idea.

[OP] On some films the editor is on location, keeping up to camera with the cut. On others, the editing team stays at a home base. For The Old Man & the Gun, you two were separated during the initial production phase. Tell me how that was handled.

[LZC] David was filming in Cincinnati and I was simultaneously cutting in LA. Because it was being shot on film, they sent it to Fotokem to be developed and then to Technicolor to be digitized. Then it was brought over to us on a drive. When you don’t get to watch dailies together, which is pretty much the norm these days, I try to ask the director to communicate with the script supervisor as much as possible while they are shooting: circled takes, particular line readings, any idea that the director might want to communicate to the editor. That sort of input always helps. Their distant location and the need to process film meant it would be a few days before I got the film and before David could see a scene that he’d shot, cut together. Getting material to him as quickly as possible is the best thing that I can do. That’s always my goal.

When I begin cutting a scene, I start by loading a sequence of all of the set-ups and then scroll through this sequence (what most editors who worked on film call a KEM roll) so that I can see what has been shot. Occasionally, I’ll put together selects, but generally I just start at the beginning and go cut to cut. The hardest part is always figuring out what’s going to be the first cut. Are we going to start tight? Are we going to start wide where we show everything? What is that first cut going to be? I seem to spend more time on that than anything else and once I get into it – and I’m not the first person to say this – the film tells you what to do. My goal is to get it into form as quickly as possible, so I can get a cut back to the director.

I finished the editor’s cut in LA and then we moved the cutting room to Dallas. Then David and I worked on the director’s cut – traditionally ten weeks – and after that, we showed it to the producers. Our time was extended a bit, because we had to wait for Bob’s availability to shoot some of the robbery sequences. They always knew that they were going to have to do some additional filming.

[OP] I know David is an experienced editor. How did you divide up the editorial tasks? Or was David able to step back from diving in and cutting, too?

[LZC] David is an excellent editor in his own right, but he is very happy to have someone else do the first pass. On this film I think he was more interested in playing around with some of the montages sequences. Then he’d hand it back to me so that I could incorporate it back into the film, sometimes making changes that kept it within the style of the film as a whole.

[OP] The scenes used in a film and the final length are always malleable until the final version of the cut. I’m sure this one was no different. Please tell me a bit about that.

[LZC] We definitely lost a fair number of scenes. My assistant makes scene cards that we put up on the wall and then when we lift a scene it goes on the back of the door. That way, you can just open the door and look on the back and see what has been taken out. In this particular film, because of the three separate storylines, scenes went in, out, and rearranged – and then in, out, and rearranged again. Often, scenes that we dropped at the very beginning ended up back in the movie, because it’s like a house of cards. You know you really have to weigh everything and try to juxtapose and balance the storylines and keep it moving. The movie is quite short now, but my first cut wasn’t that long. The final cut is 94 minutes and I think the first cut wasn’t much more than two hours.  

[OP] Let me shift gears a bit. As I understand it, David is a fan of Adobe Creative Cloud and in particularly, Premiere Pro. On The Old Man & the Gun, you shifted to Premiere Pro, as well. As someone who comes from a film and Avid editorial background, how was it to work with Premiere Pro?

[LZC] Over the course of my career, I’ve done what we call ‘doctor jobs’, where an editor comes in and does a recut of a film. On some of these jobs, I had the opportunity to work on Lightworks and on Final Cut. When we began Pete’s Dragon, David asked if I would consider doing it on Premiere Pro. David Fincher’s team had just done Gone Girl using it and David was excited about the possibility of doing Pete’s using Premiere. But for a big visual effects film, Premiere at that stage really wasn’t ready. I said if we do another film together, I’d be happy to learn Premiere. So, when we knew we would be doing Old Man, David spoke to the people at Adobe. They arranged to have Christine Steele tutor me. I worked with her before we began shooting. It was perfect, because we live close to each other and we were able to work in short, three- and four-hour blocks of time. (Note: Steele is an LA-based editor, who is frequently a featured presenter for Adobe.)

I also hired my first assistant, Mike Melendi, who was experienced with Premiere Pro. It was definitely a little intimidating at first, but within a week, I was fine. I actually ended up doing another film on Avid afterwards and I was a little nervous to go back to Avid. But that was like riding a bike. And after that, I took over another film that was on Premiere. Now I know I can go back and forth and that it’s perfectly fine.

[OP] Many feature film editors with an extensive background on Media Composer often rely on Avid’s script integration tools (ScriptSync). That’s something Premiere doesn’t have. Any concerns there?

[LZC] I think ScriptSync is the most wonderful thing in the world, but I grew up without it. When my assistants prepare dailies for me, they’ll put in a bunch of locators, so I know where there are multiple takes within a take. I think ScriptSync is great if you can get the labor of somebody to do it. I know there are a lot of editors who do it themselves while they’re watching dailies. I worked on a half-hour comedy where there was just a massive amount of footage and a tremendous amount of ‘keep rollings’. After working for one week I said to them, ‘We have to get SciptSync’. And they did! We had a dedicated person to do it and that’s all they did. It’s a wonderful luxury, which I would always love to have, but because I learned without it, I’ve created other ways to work without it.

My biggest issue with Premiere was the fact that, because I always work in the icon view and not list view, I had to contend with their grid arrangement within the bins. With Media Composer, you can arrange your clips however you want. Adobe knew that it was a really big issue for me and for other editors, so they are working on a version where you can move and arrange the clips within a bin. I’ve had the opportunity to give input on that and I know we’ll see that changed in a future version.

I would love to keep working on Premiere. Coming back to it again recently, I felt really confident about being able to go back and forth between the two systems. But some directors and studios have specific preferences. Still, I think it would be a lot of fun to continue working in Premiere.

[OP] Any final thoughts on the experience?

[LZC] I enjoyed the opportunity to work on such a wonderful project with such great actors. For me as an editor, that’s always my goal – to work with great performances. To help have a hand in shaping and creating wonderful moments like the ones we have in our film. I hope others feel that we achieved that.

For more, check out Adobe’s customer stories and blog. Also Steve Hullfish’s Art of the Cut interview.

This interview transcribed with the assistance of SpeedScriber.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Beyond the Supernova

No one typifies hard driving, instrumental, guitar rock better than Joe Satriani. The guitar virtuoso – known to his fans as Satch – has sixteen studio albums under his belt, along with several other EPs, live concert and compilation recordings. In addition to his solo tours, Satriani founded the “G3”, a series of short tours that feature Satriani along with a changing cast of two other all-star, solo guitarists, such as Steve Vai, Yngwie Malmsteen, Guthrie Govan, and others. In another side project, Satriani is the guitarist for the supergroup Chickenfoot, which is fronted by former Van Halen lead singer, Sammy Hagar.

The energy behind Satriani’s performances was captured in the new documentary film, Beyond the Supernova, which is currently available on the Stingray Qello streaming channel. This documentary grew out of the general behind-the-scenes coverage of Satriani’s 2016 and 2017 tours in Asia and Europe, to promote his 15th studio album, Shockwave Supernova. Tour filming was handled by Satriani’s son, ZZ (Zachariah Zane) – an up-and-coming, young filmmaker. The tour coincided with Joe Satriani’s 60th birthday and 30 years after the release of his multi-platinum-selling album Surfing with the Alien. These elements, as well as capturing Satriani’s introspective nature, provided the ingredients for a more in-depth project, which ZZ Satriani produced, directed and edited.

According to Joe Satriani in an interview on Stingray’s PausePlay, “ZZ was able to capture the real me in a way that only a son would understand how to do; because I was struggling with how I was going to record a new record and go in a new direction. So, as I’m on the tour bus and backstage – I guess it’s on my face. He’s filming it and he’s going ‘there’s a movie in here about that. It’s not just a bunch of guys on tour.’”

From music to filmmaking

ZZ Satriani graduated from Occidental College in 2015 with a BA in Art History and Visual Arts, with a focus on film production. He moved to Los Angeles to start a career as a freelance editor. I spoke with ZZ Satriani about how he came to make this film. He explained, “For me it started with skateboarding in high school. Filmmaking and skateboarding go hand-in-hand. You are always trying to capture your buddies doing cool tricks. I gravitated more to filmmaking in college. For the 2012 G3 Tour, I produced a couple of web videos that used mainly jump cuts and were very disjointed, but fun. They decided to bring me on for the 2016 tour in order to produce something similar. But this time, it had to have more of a story. So I recorded the interviews afterwards.”

Although ZZ thinks of himself as primarily an editor, he handed all of the backstage, behind-the-scenes, and interview filming himself, using a Sony PXW-FS5 camera. He comments, “I was learning how to use the camera as I was shooting, so I got some weird results – but in a good way. I wanted the footage to have more of a filmic look – to have more the feeling of a memory, than simply real-time events.”

The structure of Beyond the Supernova intersperses concert performances with events on the tour and introspective interviews with Joe Satriani. The multi-camera concert footage was supplied by the touring support company and is often mixed with historical footage provided by Joe Satriani’s management team. This enabled ZZ to intercut performances of the same song, not only from different locations, but even different years, going back to Joe Satriani’s early career.

The style of cutting the concert performances is relatively straightforward, but the travel and interview bridges that join them together have more of a stream-of-consciousness feel to them and are often quite psychedelic. ZZ says, “I’m not a big [Adobe] After Effects guy, so all of the ‘effects’ are practical and built up in layers within [Adobe] Premiere Pro. The majority of ‘effects’ dealt with layering, blending and cropping different clips together. It makes you think about the space within the frame – different shapes, movement, direction, etc. I like playing around that way – you end up discovering things you wouldn’t have normally thought of. Let your curiosity guide you, keep messing with things and you will look at everything in a new way. It keeps editing exciting!”

Premiere Pro makes the cut

Beyond the Supernova was completely cut and finished in Premiere Pro. ZZ explains why,  “Around 2011-12, I made the switch from [Apple] Final Cut Pro to Premiere Pro while I was in a film production class. They informed us that was the new standard, so we rolled with it and the transition was very smooth. I use other apps in the Adobe suite and I like the layout of everything in each one, so I’ve never felt the need to switch to another NLE.”

ZZ Satriani continues, “We had a mix of formats to deal with, including the need to upscale some of the standard definition footage to HD, which I did in software. Premiere handled the PXW-FS5’s XAVC-L codec pretty well in my opinion. I didn’t transcode to Pro Res, since I had so much footage, and not a lot of external hard drive space. I knew this might make things go more slowly – but honestly, I didn’t notice any significant drawbacks. I also handled all of the color correction, using Premiere’s Lumetri color controls and the FilmConvert plug-in.” Satriani created the sound design for the interview segments, but John Cuniberti (who has also mixed Joe Satriani’s albums) re-mixed the live concert segments in his studio in London. The final 5.1 surround mix of the whole film was handled at Skywalker Sound.

The impetus pushing completion was entry into the October 2017 Mill Valley Film Festival. ZZ says, “I worked for a month putting together the trailer for Mill Valley. Because I had already organized the footage for this and an earlier teaser, the actual edit of the film came easily. It took me about two months to cut – working by myself in the basement on a [2013] Mac Pro. Coffee and burritos from across the street kept me going.” 

Introspection brings surprises

Fathers and sons working together can often be an interesting dynamic and even ZZ learned new things during the production. He comments, “The title of the film evolved out of the interviews. I learned that Joe’s songs on an album tend to have a theme tied to the theme of the album, which often has a sci-fi basis to it. But it was a real surprise to me when Joe explained that Shockwave Supernova was really his character or persona on stage. I went, ‘Wait! After all these years, how did I not know that?’”

As with any film, you have to decide what gets cut and what stays. In concert projects, the decision often comes down to which songs to include. ZZ says, “One song that I initially thought shouldn’t be included was Surfing with the Alien. It’s a huge fan favorite and such an iconic song for Joe. Including it almost seemed like giving in. But, in a way it created a ‘conflict point’ for the film. Once we added Joe’s interview comments, it worked for me. He explained that each time he plays it live that it’s not like repeating the past. He feels like he’s growing with the song – discovering new ways to approach it.”

The original plan for Beyond the Supernova after Mill Valley was to showcase it at other film festivals. But Joe Satriani’s management team thought that it coincided beautifully with the release of his 16th studio album, What Happens Next, which came out in January of this year. Instead of other film festivals, Beyond the Supernova made its video premiere on AXS TV in March and then started its streaming run on Stingray Qello this July. Qello is known as a home for classic and new live concerts, so this exposes the documentary to a wider audience. Whether you are a fan of Joe Satriani or just rock documentaries, ZZ Satriani’s Beyond the Supernova is a great peek behind the curtain into life on the road and some of the thoughts that keep this veteran solo performer fresh.

Images courtesy of ZZ Satriani.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Hawaiki AutoGrade

The color correction tools in Final Cut Pro X are nice. Adobe’s Lumetri controls make grading intuitive. But sometimes you just want to click a few buttons and be happy with the results. That’s where AutoGrade from Hawaiki comes in. AutoGrade is a full-featured color correction plug-in that runs within Final Cut Pro X, Motion, Premiere Pro and After Effects. It is available from FxFactory and installs through the FxFactory plug-in manager.

As the name implies, AutoGrade is an automatic color correction tool designed to simplify and speed-up color correction. When you install AutoGrade, you get two plug-ins: AutoGrade and AutoGrade One. The latter is a simple, one-button version, based on global white balance. Simply use the color-picker (eye dropper) and sample an area that should be white. Select enable and the overall color balance is corrected. You can then tweak further, by boosting the correction, adjusting the RGB balance sliders, and/or fine-tuning luma level and saturation. Nearly all parameters are keyframeable, and looks can be saved as presets.

AutoGrade One is just a starter, though, for simple fixes. The real fun is with the full version of AutoGrade, which is a more comprehensive color correction tool. Its interface is divided into three main sections: Auto Balance, Quick Fix, and Fine-Tune. Instead of a single global balance tool, the Auto Balance section permits global, as well as, any combination of white, black, and/or skin correction. Simply turn on one or more desired parameters, sample the appropriate color(s) and enable Auto Balance. This tool will also raise or lower luma levels for the selected tonal range.

Sometimes you might have to repeat the process if you don’t like the first results. For example, when you sample the skin on someone’s face, sampling rosy cheeks will yield different results than if you sample the yellowish highlights on a forehead. To try again, just uncheck Auto Balance, sample a different area, and then enable Auto Balance again. In addition to an amount slider for each correction range, you can also adjust the RGB balance for each. Skin tones may be balanced towards warm or neutral, and the entire image can be legalized, which clamps video levels to 0-100.

Quick Fix is a set of supplied presets that work independently of the color balance controls. These include some standards, like cooling down or warming up the image, the orange and teal look, adding an s-curve, and so on. They are applied at 100% and to my eye felt a bit harsh at this default. To tone down the effect, simply adjust the amount slider downwards to get less intensity from the effect.

Fine-Tune rounds it out when you need to take a deeper dive. This section is built as a full-blown, 3-way color corrector. Each range includes a luma and three color offset controls. Instead of wheels, these controls are sliders, but the results are the same as with wheels. In addition, you can adjust exposure, saturation, vibrance, temperature/tint, and even two different contrast controls. One innovation is a log expander, designed to make it easy to correct log-encoded camera footage, in the absence of a specific log-to-Rec709 camera LUT.

Naturally, any plug-in could always offer more, so I have a minor wish list. I would love to see five additional features: film grain, vignette, sharpening, blurring/soft focus, and a highlights-only expander. There are certainly other individual filters that cover these needs, but having it all within a single plug-in would make sense. This would round out AutoGrade as a complete, creative grading module, servicing user needs beyond just color correction looks.

AutoGrade is a deceptively powerful color corrector, hidden under a simple interface. User-created looks can be saved as presets, so you can quickly apply complex settings to similar shots and set-ups. There are already many color correction tools on the market, including Hawaiki’s own Hawaiki Color. The price is very attractive, so AutoGrade is a superb tool to have in your kit. It’s a fast way to color-grade that’s ideal for both users who are new or experienced when it comes to color correction.

(Click any image to see an enlarged view.)

©2018 Oliver Peters

Wild Wild Country

Sometimes real life is far stranger than fiction. Such is the tale of the Rajneeshees – disciples of the Indian guru Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh – who moved to Wasco County, Oregon in the 1980s. Their goal was to establish a self-contained, sustainable, utopian community of spiritual followers, but the story quickly took a dark turn. Conflicts with the local Oregon community escalated, including the first and single, largest bioterror attack in the United States, when a group of followers poisoned 751 guests at ten local restaurants through intentional salmonella contamination. 

Additional criminal activities included attempted murder, conspiracy to assassinate the U. S. Attorney for the District of Oregon, arson, and wiretapping. The community was largely controlled by Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh’s personal secretary, Sheela Silverman (Ma Anand Sheela), who served 29 months in federal prison on related charges. She moved to Switzerland upon her release. Although the Rajneeshpuram community is no more and its namesake is now deceased, the community of followers lives on as the Osho International Foundation. This slice of history has now been chronicled in the six-part Netflix documentary Wild Wild Country, directed by Chapman and Maclain Way.

Documentaries are truly an editor’s medium. More so than any other cinematic genre, the final draft of the script is written in the cutting room. I recently interviewed Wild Wild Country’s editor, Neil Meiklejohn, about putting this fascinating tale together.

Treasure in the archives

Neil Meiklejohn explains, “I had worked with the directors before to help them get The Battered Bastards of Baseball ready for Sundance. That is also an Oregon story. While doing their research at the Oregon Historical Society, the archivist turned them on to this story and the footage available. The 1980s was an interesting time in local broadcast news, because that was a transition from film to video. Often stories were shot on film and then transferred to videotape for editing and airing. Many times stations would simply erase the tape after broadcast and reuse the stock. The film would be destroyed. But in this case, the local stations realized that they had something of value and held onto the footage. Eventually it was donated to the historical society.”

“The Rajneeshees on the ranch were also very proud of what they were doing – farming and building a utopian city – so, they would constantly invite visitors and media organizations onto the ranch. They also had their own film crews documenting this, although we didn’t have as much access to that material. Ultimately, we accumulated approximately 300 hours of archival media in all manner of formats, including Beta-SP videotape, ripped DVDs, and the internet. It also came in different frame rates, since some of the sources were international. On top of the archival footage, the Ways also recorded another 100 hours of new interviews with many of the principals involved on both sides of this story. That was RED Dragon 6K footage, shot in two-camera, multi-cam set-ups. So, pretty much every combination you can think of went into this series. We just embraced the aesthetic defects and differences – creating an interesting visual texture.”

Balancing both sides of the story

“Documentaries are an editor’s time to shine,” continues Meiklejohn. “We started by wanting to tell the story of the battle between the cult and the local community without picking sides. This really meant that each scene had to be edited twice. Once from each perspective. Then those two would be combined to show both sides as point-counterpoint. Originally we thought about jumping around in time. But, it quickly became apparent that the best way to tell the story was as a linear progression, so that viewers could see why people did what they did. We avoided getting tricky.”

“In order to determine a structure to our episodes, we first decided the ‘ins’ and ‘outs’ for each and then the story points to hit within. Once that was established, we could look for ‘extra gold’ that might be added to an episode. We would share edits with our executive producers and Netflix. On a large research-based project like this, their input was crucial to making sure that the story had clarity.”

Managing the post production

Meiklejohn normally works as an editor at LA post facility Rock Paper Scissors. For Wild Wild Country, he spent ten months in 2017 at an ad hoc cutting room located at the offices of the film’s executive producers, Jay and Mark Duplass. His set-up included Apple iMacs running Adobe Creative Cloud software, connected to an Avid ISIS shared storage network. Premiere Pro was the editing tool of choice.

Meiklejohn says, “The crew was largely the directors and myself. Assistant editors helped at the front end to get all of the media organized and loaded, and then again when it came time to export files for final mastering. They also helped to take my temp motion graphics – done in Premiere – and then polish them in After Effects. These were then linked back into the timeline using Dynamic Link between Premiere and After Effects. Chapman and Maclain [Way] were very hands-on throughout, including scanning in stills and prepping them in Photoshop for the edit. We would discuss each new segment to sort out the best direction the story was taking and to help set the tone for each scene.”

“Premiere Pro was the ideal tool for this project, because we had so many different formats to deal with. It dealt well with the mess. All of the archival footage was imported and used natively – no transcoding. The 6K RED interview footage was transcoded to ProRes for the ‘offline’ editing phase. A lot of temp mixing and color correction was done within Premiere, because we always wanted the rough cuts to look smooth with all of the different archival footage. Nothing should be jarring. For the ‘online’ edit, the assistants would relink to the full-resolution RED raw files. The archival footage was already linked at its native resolution, because I had been cutting with that all along. Then the Premiere sequences were exported as DPX image sequences with notched EDLs and sent to E-Film, where color correction was handled by Mitch Paulson. Unbridled Sound handled the sound design and mix – and then Encore handled mastering and 1080p deliverables.”

Working with 400 hours of material and six hour-long episodes in Premiere might be a concern for some, but it was flawless for Meiklejohn. He continues, “We worked the whole series as one large project, so that at any given time, we could go back to scenes from an earlier episode and review and compare. The archival material was organized by topic and story order, with corresponding ‘selects’ sequences. As the project became bigger, I would pare it down by deleting unnecessary sequences and saving a newer, updated version. So, no real issue by keeping everything in a single project.”

As with any real-life event, where many of the people involved are still alive, opinions will vary as to how balanced the storytelling is. Former Rajneeshees have both praised and criticized the focus of the story. Meiklejohn says, “Sheela is one of our main interview subjects and in many ways, she is both the hero and the villain of this story. So, it was interesting to see how well she has been received on social media and in the public screenings we’ve done.”

Wild Wild Country shares a pointed look into one of the most bizarre clashes in the past few decades. Meiklejohn says, “Our creative process was really focused on the standoff between these two groups and the big inflection points. I tried to let the raw emotions that you see in these interviews come through and linger a bit on-screen to help inform the events that were unfolding. The story is sensational in and of itself, and I didn’t want to distract from that.”

For more information, check out Steve Hullfish’s interview at Art of the Cut.

Originally written for CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Editing the FX Series Atlanta

Atlanta just wrapped its second season on the FX Network. The brainchild of actor/writer/producer/director Donald Glover, Atlanta is the story of Earn Marks, a Princeton drop-out who returns home to Atlanta, where he decides to manage his cousin’s rap career. The show is very textural and plot is secondary. It loosely follows Earn and the people in his life – specifically his cousin, Paper Boi – an up and coming rapper – and his friend and posse-mate, Darrius.

The visual architect of the show is director Hiro Murai, who has directed the majority of the episodes. He has set an absurdist tone for much of the story. Any given episode can be wildly different from the episodes that come on either side of it. The episodes taken as a whole make up what the series is about.

I recently had a chance to interview the show’s editors, Kyle Reiter and Isaac Hagy, about working on Atlanta and their use of Adobe Premiere Pro CC to edit the series.

Isaac Hagy: “I have been collaborating with Hiro for years. We went to college together and ever since then, we’ve been making short films and music videos. I started out doing no-budget music videos, then eventually moved into documentaries and commercials, and now television. A few years ago, we made a short film called Clapping for the Wrong Reasons, starring Donald. That became kind of an aesthetic precursor that we used in pitching this show. It served as a template for the tone of Atlanta.”

“I’ve used pretty much every editing software under the sun – cutting short films in high school on iMovie, then Avid in college when I went to film school at USC. Once I started doing short film projects, I found Final Cut Pro to be more conducive to quick turnarounds than Avid. I used that for five or six years, but then they stopped updating it, so I needed to switch over to a more professional alternative. Premiere Pro was the easiest transition from Final Cut Pro and, at that time, Premiere was starting to be accepted as a professional platform. A lot of people on the show come from a very DIY background, where we do everything ourselves. Like with the early music videos – I would color and Hiro would do effects in After Effects. So, Premiere was a much more natural fit. I am on a show using [Avid] Media Composer right now and it feels like a step backwards.”

With a nod to their DIY ethos, post-production for Atlanta also follows a small, collective approach. 

Kyle Reiter: “We rent a post facility that is just a single-story house. We have a DIY server called a NAS that one of our assistants built and all the media is stored there. It’s just a tower. We brought in our own desktop iMacs with dual monitors that we connect to the server over Ethernet. The show is shot with ARRI Amira cameras in a cinema 2K format. Then that is transcoded to proxy media for editing, which makes it easy to manage. The color correction is done in Resolve. Our assistant editors online it for the colorist, so there’s no grading in-house.” Atlanta airs on the FX Network in the 720p format.

The structure and schedule of this production make it possible to use a simple team approach. Projects aren’t typically shared among multiple editors and assistants, so a more elaborate infrastructure isn’t required to get the job done. 

Isaac Hagy: “It’s a pretty small team. There’s Kyle and myself. We each have an assistant editor. We just split the episodes, so I took half of the season and Kyle the other half. We were pretty self-contained, but because there were an odd number of episodes, we ended up sharing the load on one of them. I did the first cut of that episode and Kyle took it through the director’s cut. But other than that, we each had our individual episodes.”

Kyle Reiter: “They’re in Atlanta for several months shooting. We’ll spend five to seven days doing our cut and then typically move on to the next thing, before we’re finished. That’s just because they’re out of town for several months shooting and then they’ll come back and continue to work. So, it’s actually quite a bit of time calendar-wise, but not a lot of time in actual work hours. We’ll start by pulling selects and marking takes. I do a lot of logging within Premiere. A lot of comments and a lot of markers about stuff that will make it easy to find later. It’s just breaking it down to manageable pieces. Then from there, going scene-by-scene, and putting it all together.”

Many scripted television series that are edited on Avid Media Composer rely on Avid’s script integration features. This led me to wonder whether Reiter and Hagy missed such tools in Premiere Pro.

Isaac Hagy: “We’re lucky that the way in which the DP [Christian Sprenger] and the director shoot the series is very controlled. The projects are never terribly unwieldy, so really simple organizing usually does the trick.”

Kyle Reiter: “They’re never doing more than a handful of takes and there aren’t more than a handful of set-ups, so it’s really easy to keep track of everything. I’ve worked with editors that used markers and just mark every line and then designate a line number; but, we don’t on this show. These episodes are very economical in how they are written and shot, so that sort of thing is not needed. It would be nice to have an Avid ScriptSync type of thing within Premiere Pro. However, we don’t get an unwieldy amount of footage, so frankly it’s almost not necessary. If it were on a different sort of show, where I needed that, then absolutely I would do it. But this is the sort of show I can get away with not doing it.”

Kyle Reiter: “I’m on a show right now being cut on Media Composer, where there are 20 to 25 takes of everything. Having ScriptSync is a real lifesaver on that one.”

Both editors are fans of Premiere Pro’s advanced features, including the ability to use it with After Effects, along with the new sound tools added in recent versions.

Isaac Hagy: “In the offline, we create some temp visual effects to set the concepts. Some of the simpler effects do make it into the show. We’ll mock it up in Premiere and then the AE’s will bring it into After Effects and polish the effect. Then it will be Dynamic Link-ed back into the Premiere timeline.”

“We probably go deeper on the sound than any other technical aspect of the show. In fact, a lot of the sound that we temp for the editor’s cut will make it to the final mix stage. We not only try to source sounds that are appropriate for a scene, but we also try to do light mixing ourselves – whether it’s adding reverb or putting the sound within the space – just giving it some realism. We definitely use the sound tools in Premiere quite a bit. Personally, I’ve had scenes where I was using 30 tracks just for sound effects.”

“I definitely feel more comfortable working in sound in Premiere than in Media Composer -and even than I felt in Final Cut. It’s way easier working with filters, mixing, panning, and controlling multiple tracks at once. This season we experimented with the Essential Sound Panel quite a bit. It was actually very good in putting a song into the background or putting sound effects outside of a room – just creating spaces.”

When a television series or film is about the music industry, the music in the series plays a principal role. Sometimes that is achieved with a composed score and on other shows, the soundtrack is built from popular music.

Kyle Reiter: “There’s no score on the show that’s not diegetic music, so we don’t have a composer. We had one episode this year where we did have score. Flying Lotus and Thundercat are two music friends of Donald’s that scored the episode. But other than that, everything else is just pop songs that we put into the show.”

Isaac Hagy: “The decision of which music to use is very collaborative. Some of the songs are written in the script. A lot are choices that Kyle and I make. Hiro will add some. Donald will add some. We also have two great music supervisors. We’re really lucky that we get nearly 90% of the music that we fall in love with cleared. But when we don’t, our music supervisors recommend some great alternatives. We’re looking for an authenticity to the world, so we try to rely on tracks that exist in the real world.”

Atlanta provides an interesting look of the city’s hip-hop culture on the fringe. A series that has included an alligator and Donald Glover in weird prosthetic make-up – and where Hiro Murai takes inspiration from The Shining certainly isn’t your run-of-the-mill television series. It definitely leaves fans wanting more, but to date, a third season has not yet been announced.

This interview was recorded using the Apogee MetaRecorder for iOS application and transcribed thanks to Digital Heaven’s SpeedScriber.

Originally written for CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Premiere Pro Multicam Editing

Over the years, a lot of the projects that I’ve edited have been based on real-person interviews. This includes documentaries, commercials, and corporate video. As the cost of camera gear has come down and DSLRs became capable of delivering quality video, interview-based production now almost always utilizes multiple cameras. Directors will typically record these sections with two or more cameras at various tangents to the subject, which makes it easy to edit for content without visible jump-cuts (hopefully). In addition, if they also shoot in 4K for an HD delivery, then you have the additional ability to cleanly punch-in for even more framing options.

While having a specific multicam feature in your NLE isn’t required for cutting these types of productions, it sure speeds up the process. Under the best of circumstances, you can play the sequence in real-time and cut between camera angles in the multicam viewer, much like a director calls camera switches in a live telecast. Since you are working within an NLE, you can also make these camera angle cuts at a slower or faster pace and, of course, trim the cuts for greater timing precision. Premiere Pro is my primary NLE these days and its multi-camera editing routines are a joy to use.

Prepping for multi-camera

Synchronization is the main requirement for productive multicam. That starts at the time of the original recording. You can either sync by common timecode, common audio, or a marked in-point.

Ideally, your production crew should use a Lockit Sync Box to generate timecode and sync to all cameras and any external sound recorder. That will only work with professional products, not DSLRs. Lacking that, the next best thing is old school – a common slate with a clap-stick or even just your subject clapping hands at the start, while in view on all cameras. This will allow the editor to mark a common in-point.

The last sync method is to match the common audio across all sources. Of course, that only works if the production crew has supplied quality audio to all cameras and external recorders. It has to be at least good enough so that the human editor and/or the audio analysis of the software can discern a match. Sometimes this method will suffer from a minor amount of delay – either, because of the inherent offset of the audio recording circuitry within the camera electronics – or, because an onboard camera mic was used and the distance to the subject results in a slight delay, compared to a lav mic on the subject.

In addition to synchronization, you obviously need to record high-quality audio. This can be a mixer feed or direct mic input to one or all of the camera tracks, or to a separate external audio recorder. A typical set-up is to feed a lav and a boom mic signal to audio input channels 1 and 2 of the camera. When a mixer and an external recorder are used, the sound recordist will often also record a mix. Another option, though not as desirable, is to record individual microphone signals onto different cameras. The reason this isn’t preferred, is that sometimes when these two sources are mixed in post (rather than only one source used at a time), audio phasing can occur.

Synching in Premiere Pro

To synchronize multicam clips in Premiere Pro, simply select the matching sources in the browser/bin, right-click, and choose “Create New Multi-Camera Source Sequence”. You will be presented with several options for sync, based on timecode, audio, or marked points. You may also opt to have the clips moved to a “Processed Clips” bin. If synchronization is successful, you’ll then end up with a multicam source clip that you can now cut to a standard sequence.

A multicam source clip is actually a modified, nested sequence. You can open the clip – same as a nested sequence – and make adjustments or apply filters to the clips within.

You can also create multicam clips without going through the aforementioned process. For example, let’s say that none of the three sync methods exist. You have a freewheeling interview with two or more cameras, but only one has any audio. There’s no clap and no common timecode. In fact, if all the cameras were DSLRs, then every clip arbitrarily starts at 00:00:00:00. The way to tackle this is to edit these cameras to separate video tracks of a new sequence. Sync the video by slipping the clips’ positions on the tracks. Select those clips on the timeline and create a nest. Once the nest is created, this can then be turned into a multicam source clip, which enables you to work with the multicam viewer.

One step I follow is to place the multicam source clip onto a sequence and replace the audio with the best original source. The standard multicam routine means that audio is also nested, which is something I dislike. I don’t want all of the camera audio tracks there, even if they are muted. So I will typically match-frame the source until I get back to the original audio that I intend to use, and then overwrite the multicam clip’s audio with the original on this working timeline. On the other hand, if the manual multicam creation method is used, then I would only nest the video tracks, which automatically leaves me with the clean audio that I desire.

Autosequence

One simple approach is to use an additional utility to create multicam sequences, such as Autosequence from software developer VideoToolShed. To use Autosequence, your clips must have matching timecode. First separate all of your clips into separate folders on your media hard drive – A-CAM, B-CAM, SOUND, and so on. Launch Autosequence and set the matching frame rate for your media. Then import each folder of clips separately. If you are using double-system sound you can choose whether or not to include the camera sound. Then generate an XML file.

Now, import the XML file into Premiere Pro. This will import the source media into bins, along with a sequence of clips where each camera is on a separate track. If your clips are broken into consecutive recordings with stops and starts in-between, then each recorded set will appear further down on the same timeline. To turn this sequence into one with multicam clips, just follow my explanation for working with a manual process, described above.

Multicam cutting

At this point, I dupe the sequence(s) and start a reductive process of shaping the interview. I usually don’t worry too much about changing camera angles, until I have the story fleshed out. When you are ready for that, right-click into the viewer, and change the display mode to multicam.

As you play, cut between cameras in the viewer by clicking on the corresponding section of the viewer. The timeline will update to show these on-the-fly edits when you stop playback. Or you can simply “blade” the clip and then right-click that portion of the clip to select the camera to be shown. Remember than any effects or color corrections you apply in the timeline are applicable to that visible angle, but do not follow it. So, if you change your mind and switch to a different angle, the effects and corrections do not change with it. Therefore, adjustments will be required to the effect or correction for that new camera angle.

Once I’m happy with the cutting, I will then go through and make a color correction pass. If the lighting has stayed consistent, I can usually grade each angle for one clip only and then copy that correction and paste it to each instance of that same angle on the timeline. Then repeat the procedure for the other camera angles.

When I’m ready to deliver the final product, I will dupe the sequence and clean it up. This means flattening all multicam clips, cleaning up unused clips on my timeline, deleting empty tracks, and usually, collapsing the clips down to the fewest number of tracks.

©2018 Oliver Peters