Premiere Pro Multicam Editing

Over the years, a lot of the projects that I’ve edited have been based on real-person interviews. This includes documentaries, commercials, and corporate video. As the cost of camera gear has come down and DSLRs became capable of delivering quality video, interview-based production now almost always utilizes multiple cameras. Directors will typically record these sections with two or more cameras at various tangents to the subject, which makes it easy to edit for content without visible jump-cuts (hopefully). In addition, if they also shoot in 4K for an HD delivery, then you have the additional ability to cleanly punch-in for even more framing options.

While having a specific multicam feature in your NLE isn’t required for cutting these types of productions, it sure speeds up the process. Under the best of circumstances, you can play the sequence in real-time and cut between camera angles in the multicam viewer, much like a director calls camera switches in a live telecast. Since you are working within an NLE, you can also make these camera angle cuts at a slower or faster pace and, of course, trim the cuts for greater timing precision. Premiere Pro is my primary NLE these days and its multi-camera editing routines are a joy to use.

Prepping for multi-camera

Synchronization is the main requirement for productive multicam. That starts at the time of the original recording. You can either sync by common timecode, common audio, or a marked in-point.

Ideally, your production crew should use a Lockit Sync Box to generate timecode and sync to all cameras and any external sound recorder. That will only work with professional products, not DSLRs. Lacking that, the next best thing is old school – a common slate with a clap-stick or even just your subject clapping hands at the start, while in view on all cameras. This will allow the editor to mark a common in-point.

The last sync method is to match the common audio across all sources. Of course, that only works if the production crew has supplied quality audio to all cameras and external recorders. It has to be at least good enough so that the human editor and/or the audio analysis of the software can discern a match. Sometimes this method will suffer from a minor amount of delay – either, because of the inherent offset of the audio recording circuitry within the camera electronics – or, because an onboard camera mic was used and the distance to the subject results in a slight delay, compared to a lav mic on the subject.

In addition to synchronization, you obviously need to record high-quality audio. This can be a mixer feed or direct mic input to one or all of the camera tracks, or to a separate external audio recorder. A typical set-up is to feed a lav and a boom mic signal to audio input channels 1 and 2 of the camera. When a mixer and an external recorder are used, the sound recordist will often also record a mix. Another option, though not as desirable, is to record individual microphone signals onto different cameras. The reason this isn’t preferred, is that sometimes when these two sources are mixed in post (rather than only one source used at a time), audio phasing can occur.

Synching in Premiere Pro

To synchronize multicam clips in Premiere Pro, simply select the matching sources in the browser/bin, right-click, and choose “Create New Multi-Camera Source Sequence”. You will be presented with several options for sync, based on timecode, audio, or marked points. You may also opt to have the clips moved to a “Processed Clips” bin. If synchronization is successful, you’ll then end up with a multicam source clip that you can now cut to a standard sequence.

A multicam source clip is actually a modified, nested sequence. You can open the clip – same as a nested sequence – and make adjustments or apply filters to the clips within.

You can also create multicam clips without going through the aforementioned process. For example, let’s say that none of the three sync methods exist. You have a freewheeling interview with two or more cameras, but only one has any audio. There’s no clap and no common timecode. In fact, if all the cameras were DSLRs, then every clip arbitrarily starts at 00:00:00:00. The way to tackle this is to edit these cameras to separate video tracks of a new sequence. Sync the video by slipping the clips’ positions on the tracks. Select those clips on the timeline and create a nest. Once the nest is created, this can then be turned into a multicam source clip, which enables you to work with the multicam viewer.

One step I follow is to place the multicam source clip onto a sequence and replace the audio with the best original source. The standard multicam routine means that audio is also nested, which is something I dislike. I don’t want all of the camera audio tracks there, even if they are muted. So I will typically match-frame the source until I get back to the original audio that I intend to use, and then overwrite the multicam clip’s audio with the original on this working timeline. On the other hand, if the manual multicam creation method is used, then I would only nest the video tracks, which automatically leaves me with the clean audio that I desire.

Autosequence

One simple approach is to use an additional utility to create multicam sequences, such as Autosequence from software developer VideoToolShed. To use Autosequence, your clips must have matching timecode. First separate all of your clips into separate folders on your media hard drive – A-CAM, B-CAM, SOUND, and so on. Launch Autosequence and set the matching frame rate for your media. Then import each folder of clips separately. If you are using double-system sound you can choose whether or not to include the camera sound. Then generate an XML file.

Now, import the XML file into Premiere Pro. This will import the source media into bins, along with a sequence of clips where each camera is on a separate track. If your clips are broken into consecutive recordings with stops and starts in-between, then each recorded set will appear further down on the same timeline. To turn this sequence into one with multicam clips, just follow my explanation for working with a manual process, described above.

Multicam cutting

At this point, I dupe the sequence(s) and start a reductive process of shaping the interview. I usually don’t worry too much about changing camera angles, until I have the story fleshed out. When you are ready for that, right-click into the viewer, and change the display mode to multicam.

As you play, cut between cameras in the viewer by clicking on the corresponding section of the viewer. The timeline will update to show these on-the-fly edits when you stop playback. Or you can simply “blade” the clip and then right-click that portion of the clip to select the camera to be shown. Remember than any effects or color corrections you apply in the timeline are applicable to that visible angle, but do not follow it. So, if you change your mind and switch to a different angle, the effects and corrections do not change with it. Therefore, adjustments will be required to the effect or correction for that new camera angle.

Once I’m happy with the cutting, I will then go through and make a color correction pass. If the lighting has stayed consistent, I can usually grade each angle for one clip only and then copy that correction and paste it to each instance of that same angle on the timeline. Then repeat the procedure for the other camera angles.

When I’m ready to deliver the final product, I will dupe the sequence and clean it up. This means flattening all multicam clips, cleaning up unused clips on my timeline, deleting empty tracks, and usually, collapsing the clips down to the fewest number of tracks.

©2018 Oliver Peters

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Audio Mixing with Premiere Pro

When budgets permit and project needs dictate, I will send my mixes out-of-house to one of a few regular mixers. Typically that means sending them an OMF or AAF to mix in Pro Tools. Then I get the mix and split-tracks back, drop them into my Premiere Pro timeline, and generate master files.

On the other hand, a lot of my work is cutting simple commercials and corporate presentations for in-house use or the web, and these are often less demanding  – 2 to 8 tracks of dialogue, limited sound effects, and music. It’s easy to do the mix inside of the NLE. Bear in mind that I can – and often have – done such a mix in Apple Logic Pro X or Adobe Audition, but the tools inside Premiere Pro are solid enough that I often just keep everything – mix included – inside my editing application. Let’s walk though that process.

Dealing with multiple channels on source clips

Start with your camera files or double-system audio recordings. Depending on the camera model, Premiere Pro will see these source clips as having either stereo (e.g. a Canon C100) or multi-channel mono (e.g. ARRI Alexa) channels. If you recorded a boom mic on channel 1 and a lavaliere mic on channel 2, then these will drop onto your stereo timeline either as two separate mono tracks (Alexa) – or as a single stereo track (C100), with the boom coming out of the left speaker and the lav out of the right. Which one it is will strictly depend on the device used to generate the original recordings.

First, when dual-mic recordings appear as stereo, you have to understand how Premiere Pro deals with stereo sources. Panning in Premiere Pro doesn’t “shift” the audio left, right, or center. Instead, it increases or decreases the relative volume of the left or right half of this stereo field. In our dual-mic scenario, panning the clip or track full left means that we only hear the boom coming out of the left speaker, but nothing out of the right. There are two ways to fix this – either by changing the channel configuration of the source in the browser – or by changing it after the fact in the timeline. Browser changes will not alter the configuration of clips already edited to the timeline. You can change one or more source clips from stereo to dual-mono in the browser, but you can’t make that same type of change to a clip already in your sequence.

Let’s assume that you aren’t going to make any browser changes and instead just want to work in your sequence. If your source clip is treated as dual-mono, then the boom and lav will cut over to track 1 and 2 of your sequence – and the sound will be summed in mono on the output to your speaks. However, if the clip is treated as stereo, then it will only cut over to track 1 of your sequence – and the sound will stay left and right on the output to your speakers. When it’s dual-mono, you can listen to one track versus the other, determine which mic sounds the best, and disable the clip with the other mic. Or you can blend the two using clip volume levels.

If the source clip ends up in the sequence as a stereo clip, then you will want to determine which one of the two mics you want to use for the best sound. To pick only one mic, you will need to change the clip’s audio configuration. When you do that, it’s still a stereo clip, however, both “sides” can be supplied by either one of the two source channels. So, both left and right output will either be the boom or the lav, but not both. If you want to blend both mics together, then you will need to duplicate (option-drag) the audio clip onto an adjacent timeline track, and change the audio channel configuration for both clips. One would be set to the boom for both channels and the other set to only the lav for its two channels. Then adjust clip volume for the two timeline clips.

Configuring your timeline

Like most editors, while I’m working through the stages of rough cutting on the way to an approved final copy, I will have a somewhat messy timeline. I may have multiple music cues on several tracks with only one enabled – just so I can preview alternates for the client. I will have multiple dialogue clips on a few tracks with some disabled, depending on microphone or take options. But when I’m ready to move to the finishing stage, I will duplicate that sequence to create a “final version” and clean that one up. This means getting rid of any disabled clips, collapsing my audio and video clips to the fewest number of tracks, and using Premiere’s track creation/deletion feature to delete all empty tracks – all so I can have the least amount of visual clutter. 

In other blog posts, I’ve discussed working with additional submix buses to create split-track exports; but, for most of these smaller jobs, I will only add one submix bus. (I will explain its purpose in a moment.) Once created, you will need to open the track mixer panel and route the timeline channels from the master to the submix bus and then the output of the submix bus back to the master.

Plug-ins

Premiere Pro CC comes with a nice set of audio plug-ins, which can be augmented with plenty of third-party audio effects filters. I am partial to Waves and iZotope, but these aren’t essential. However, there are several that I do use quite frequently. These three third-party filters will help improve any vocal-heavy piece.

The first two are Vocal Rider and MV2 from Waves and are designed specifically for vocal performances, like voice-overs and interviews. These can be pricey, but Waves has frequent sales, so I was able to pick these up for a fraction of their retail price. Vocal Rider is a real-time, automatic volume adjustment tool. Set the bottom and top parameters and let Vocal Rider do the rest, by automatically pushing the volume up or down on-the-fly. MV2 is similar, but it achieves this through compression on the top and bottom ends of the range. While they operate in a similar fashion, they do produce a different sound. I tend to pick MV2 for voice-overs and Vocal Rider for interviews.

We all know location audio isn’t perfect, which is where my third filter comes in. FxFactory is knows primarily for video plug-ins, but their partnership with Crumplepop has added a nice set of audio filters to their catalog. I find AudioDenoise to be quite helpful and fast in fixing annoying location sounds, like background air conditioning noise. It’s real-time and good-sounding, but like all audio noise reduction, you have to be careful not to overdo it, or everything will sound like it’s underwater.

For my other mix needs, I’ll stick to Premiere’s built-in effects, like EQ, compressors, etc. One that’s useful for music is the stereo imager. If you have a music cue that sounds too monaural, this will let you “expand” the track’s stereo signal so that it is spread more left and right. This often helps when you want the voice-over to cut through the mix a bit better. 

My last plug-in is a broadcast limiter that is placed onto the master bus. I will adjust this tight with a hard limit for broadcast delivery, but much higher (louder allowed) for web files. Be aware that Premiere’s plug-in architecture allows you to have the filter take affect either pre or post-fader. In the case of the master bus, this will also affect the VU display. In other words, if you place a limiter post-fader, then the result will be heard, but not visible through the levels displayed on the VU meters.

Mixing

I have used different mixing strategies over the years with Premiere Pro. I like using the write function of the track mixer to write fader automation. However, I have lately stopped using it – instead going back to manual keyframes within the clips. The reason is probably that my projects tend to get revised often in ways that change timing. Since track automation is based on absolute timeline position, keyframes don’t move when a clip is shifted, like they would when clip-based volume keyframes are used.

Likewise, Adobe has recently added Audition’s ducking for music to Premiere Pro. This uses Adobe’s Sensei artificial intelligence. Unfortunately I don’t find to be “intelligent” enough. Although sometimes it can provide a starting point. For me, it’s simply too coarse and doesn’t intelligently adjust for areas within a music clip that swell or change volume internally. Therefore, I stick with minor manual adjustments to compensate for music changes and to make the vocal parts easy to understand in the mix. Then I will use the track mixer to set overall levels for each track to get the right balance of voice, sound effects, and music.

Once I have a decent balance to my ears, I will temporarily drop the TC Electronic (included with Premiere Pro) Radar loudness plug-in to make sure my mix is CALM-compliant. This is where the submix bus comes in. If I like the overall balance, but I need to bring everything down, it’s an easy matter to simply lower the submix level and remeasure.

Likewise, it’s customary to deliver web versions with louder volume levels than the broadcast mix. Again the submix bus will help, because you cannot raise the volume on the master – only lower it. If you simply want to raise the overall volume of the broadcast mix for web delivery, simply raise the submix fader. Note that when I say louder, I’m NOT talking about slamming the VUs all the way to the top. Typically, a mix that hits -6 is plenty loud for the web. So, for web delivery, I will set a hard limit at -6, but adjust the mix for an average of about -10.

Hopefully this short explanation has provided some insight into mixing within Premiere Pro and will help you make sure that your next project sounds great.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Putting Apple’s iMac Pro Through the Paces

At the end of December, Apple made good on the release of the new iMac Pro and started selling and shipping the new workstations. While this could be characterized as a stop-gap effort until the next generation of Mac Pro is produced, that doesn’t detract from the usefulness and power of this design in its own right. After all, the iMac line is the direct descendant in spirit and design of the original Macintosh. Underneath the sexy, all-in-one, space grey enclosure, the iMac Pro offers serious workstation performance.

I work mostly these days with a production company that produces and posts commercials, corporate videos, and entertainment programming. Our editing set-up consists of seven workstations, plus an auxiliary machine connected to a common QNAP shared storage network. These edit stations consisted of a mix of old and new Mac Pros and iMacs (connected via 10GigE), with a Mac Mini for the auxiliary (1GigE). It was time to upgrade the oldest machines, which led us to consider the iMac Pros. The company picked up three of them – replacing two Mac Pro towers and an older iMac. The new configuration is a mix of three, one-year-old Retina 5K iMacs (late 2015 model), a 2013 “trash can” Mac Pro, and three 2017 iMac Pros.

There are plenty of videos and articles on the web about how these machines perform; but, the testers often use artificial benchmarks or only Final Cut Pro X. This shop has a mix of NLEs (Adobe, Apple, Avid, Blackmagic Design), but our primary tool is Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2018. This gave me a chance to compare how these machines stacked up against each other in the kind of work we actually do. This comparison isn’t truly apples-to-apples, since the specs of the three different products are somewhat different from each other. Nevertheless, I feel that it’s a valid real-world assessment of the iMac Pros in a typical, modern post environment.

Why buy iMac Pros at all?

The question to address is why should someone purchase these machines? Let me say right off the bat, that if your main focus is 3D animation or heavy compositing using After Effects or other applications – and speed and performance are the most important factor – then don’t buy an Apple computer. Period. There are plenty of examples of Dell and HP workstations, along with high-end gaming PCs, that outperform any of the Macs. This is largely due to the availability of advanced NVidia GPUs for the PC, which simply aren’t an option for current Macs.

On the other hand, if you need a machine that’s solid and robust across a wide range of postproduction tasks – and you prefer the Mac operating ecosystem – then the iMac Pros are a good choice. Yes, the machine is pricy and you can buy cheaper gaming PCs and DIY workstations, but if you stick to the name brands, like Dell and HP, then the iMac Pros are competitively priced. In our case, a shift to PC would have also meant changing out all of the machines and not just three – therefore, even more expensive.

Naturally, the next thing is to compare price against the current 5K iMacs and 2013 Mac Pros. Apple’s base configuration of the iMac Pro uses an 8-core 3.2GHz Xeon W CPU, 32GB RAM, 1TB SSD, and the Radeon Pro Vega 56 GPU (8GB memory) for $4,999. A comparably configured 2013 Mac Pro is $5,207 (with mouse and keyboard), but no display. Of course, it also has the dual D-700 GPUs. The 5K iMac in a similar configuration is $3,729. Note that we require 10GigE connectivity, which is built into the iMac Pros. Therefore, in a direct comparison, you would need to bump up the iMac and Mac Pro prices by about $500 for a Thunderbolt2-to-10GigE converter.

Comparing these numbers for similar machines, you’d spend more for the Mac Pro and less for the iMac. Yet, the iMac Pro uses newer processors and faster RAM, so it could be argued that it’s already better out of the gate in the base configuration than Apple’s former top-of-the-line product. It has more horsepower than the tricked-out iMac, so then it becomes a question of whether the cost difference is important to you for what you are getting.

Build quality

Needless to say, Apple has a focus on the quality and fit-and-finish of its products. The iMac Pro is no exception. Except for the space grey color, it looks like the regular 27” iMacs and just as nicely built. However, let me quibble a bit with a few things. First, the edges of the case and foot tend to be a bit sharp. It’s not a huge issue, but compared with an iPhone, iPad, or 2013 Mac Pro, the edges just not as smooth and rounded. Secondly, you get a wireless mouse and extended keyboard. Both have to be plugged in to charge. In the case of the mouse, the cable plugs in at the bottom, rendering it useless during charging. Truly a bad design. The wireless keyboard is the newer, flatter style, so you lose two USB ports that were on the previous plug-in extended keyboard. Personally, I prefer the features and feel of the previous keyboard, not to mention any scroll wheel mouse over the Magic Mouse. Of course, those are strictly items of personal taste.

With the iMac Pro, Apple is transitioning its workstations to Thunderbolt 3, using USB-C connectors. Previous Thunderbolt 2 ports have been problematic, because the cables easily disconnect. In fact, on our existing iMacs, it’s very easy to disconnect the Thunderbolt 2 cable that connects us to the shared storage network, simply by moving the iMac around to get to the ports on the back. The USB-C connectors feel more snug, so hopefully we will find that to be an improvement. If you need to get to the back of the iMac or iMac Pro frequently, in order to plug in drives, dongles, etc., then I would highly recommend one of the docks from CalDigit or OWC as a valuable accessory.

5K screen

Apple spends a lot of marketing hype on promoting their 5K Retina screens. The 27” screens have a raw pixel resolution of 5120×2880 pixels, but that’s not what you see in terms of image and user interface dimensions. To start with, the 5K iMacs and iMac Pros use the same screen resolution and the default display setting (middle scaled option) is 2560×1440 pixels. The top choice is 3200×1800. Of course, if you use that setting, everything becomes extremely small on screen.  Conversely, our 2013 Mac Pro is connected to a 27” Apple LED Cinema Display (non Retina). It’s top scaled resolution is also 2560×1440 pixels. Therefore, at the most useable settings, all of our workstations are set to the same resolution. Even if you scale the resolution up (images and UI get smaller), you are going to end up adjusting the size of the application interface and viewer window. While you might see different viewer size percentage numbers between the machines, the effective size on screen will be the same.

Retina is Apple’s marketing name for high pixel density. This is the equivalent of DPI (dots per inch) in print resolutions. According to a Macworld article, iPhones from 4 to 5s had a pixel density of 326ppi (pixels per inch), while iMacs have 218ppi. Apple converts a device’s display to Retina by doubling the horizontal and vertical pixel count. More pixels are applied to any given area on the screen, resulting in smoother text, smoother diagonal lines, and so on. That’s assuming an application’s interface is optimized for it. At the distance that the editors sit from a 27” display, there is simply little or no difference between the look of the 27” LED display and the 27” iMac Retina screens.

Upgradeability

Future-proofing and upgrades are the biggest negatives thrown at all-in-ones, particularly the iMac Pros. While the user can upgrade RAM in the standard iMacs, that’s not the case with iMac Pros. You can upgrade RAM in the future, but that must be done at a service facility, such as the Apple Store’s Genius service. This means that in three years, when you want the latest, greatest CPU, GPU, storage, etc., you won’t be able to swap out components. But is this really an issue? I’m sure Apple has user research numbers to justify their decisions. Plus, the thermal design of the iMac would make user upgrades difficult, unlike older mac Pro towers.

In my own experience on personal machines, as well as clients’ machines that I’ve helped maintain, I have upgraded storage, GPU cards, and RAM, but never the CPU. Although I do know others who have upgraded Xeon models on their Mac Pro towers. Part of the dichotomy is buying what you can afford now and upgrading later, versus stretching a bit up front and then not needing to upgrade later. My gut feeling is that Apple is pushing the latter approach.

If I tally up the cost of the upgrades that I’ve made after about three years, I would already be part of the way towards a newer, better machine anyway. Plus, if you are cutting HD and even 4K today, then just about any advanced machine will do the trick, making it less likely that you’ll need to do that upgrade within the foreseeable life of the machine. An argument can be made for either approach, but I really think that the vast majority of users – even professional users – never actually upgrade any of the internal hardware from that of the configuration as originally purchased.

Performance testing

We ultimately purchased machines that were the 10-core bump-up from the base configuration, feeling that this is the sweet spot (and is currently available) within the iMac Pro product line.

The new machine specs within the facility now look like this:

2013 Mac Pro – 3GHz 8-core Xeon/64GB RAM/dual D-500 GPUs/1TB SSD (Sierra)

2015 iMac – 4GHz 4-core Core i7/32GB RAM/AMD R9/3TB Fusion drive (Sierra)

2017 iMac Pro – 3GHz 10-core Xeon W/64GB RAM/Radeon Vega 64/1TB SSD (High Sierra)

As you can see, the tech specs of the new iMac Pros more closely match the 2013 Mac Pro than the year-old 5K iMacs. Of course, it’s not a perfect match for optimal benchmark testing, but close enough for a good read on how well the iMac Pro delivers in a real working environment.

Test 1 – BruceX

The BruceX test uses a 5K Final Cut Pro X timeline made up only of built-in titles and generators. The timeline is then rendered out to a ProRes file. This tests the pure application without any media and codec variables. It’s a bit of an artificial test and only applicable to FCPX performance, but still useful. The faster the export time, the better. (I have bolded the best results.)

2013 Mac Pro – 26.8 sec.

2015 iMac – 28.3 sec.

2017 iMac Pro – 14.4 sec.

Test 2 – media encoding

In my next test, I took a 4½-minute-long 1080p ProRes file and rendered it to a 4K/UHD (3840×2160) H.264 (1-pass CBR 20Mbps) file. Not only was it being encoded, but also scaled up to 4K in this process. I rendered from and to the desktop, to eliminate any variables from the QNAP system. Finally, I conducted the test using both Adobe Media Encoder (using OpenCL processing) and Apple Compressor.

Two noteworthy issues. The Compressor test was surprisingly slow on the Mac Pro. (I actually ran the Compressor test twice, just to be certain about the slowness of the Mac Pro.) The AME version kicked in the fans on the iMac.

Adobe Media Encoder

2013 Mac Pro – 6:13 min.

2015 iMac – 7:14 min.

2017 iMac Pro – 4:48 min.

 Compressor

2013 Mac Pro – 11:02 min.

2015 iMac – 2:20 min.

2017 iMac Pro – 2:19 min.

 Test 3 – editing timeline playback – multi-layered sequence

This was a difficult test designed to break during unrendered playback. The 40-second 1080p/23.98 sequence include six layers of resized 4K source media.

Layer 1 – DJI clips with dissolves between the clips

Layers 2-5 – 2D PIP ARRI Alexa clips (no LUTs); layer 5 had a Gaussian blur effect added

Layer 6 – native REDCODE RAW with minor color correction

The sequence was created in both Final Cut Pro X and Premiere Pro. Playback was tested with the media located on the QNAP volumes, as well as from the desktop (this should provide the best possible playback).

Playing back this sequence in Final Cut Pro X from the QNAP resulted is the video output largely choking on all of the machines. Playing it back in Premiere Pro from the QNAP was slightly better than in FCPX, with the 2017 iMac Pro performing best of all. It played, but was still choppy.

When I tested playback from the desktop, all three machines performed reasonably well using both Final Cut Pro X (“best performance”) and Premiere Pro (“1/2 resolution”). There were some frames dropped, although the iMac Pro played back more smoothly than the other two. In fact, in Premiere Pro, I was able to set the sequence to “full resolution” and get visually smooth playback, although the indicator light still noted dropped frames. Typically, as each staggered layer kicked in, performance tended to hiccup.

Test 4 – editing timeline playback – single-layer sequence

 This was a simpler test using a standard workflow. The 30-second 1080p/23.98 sequence included three Alexa clips (no LUTs) with dissolves between the clips. Each source file was 4K/UHD and had a “punch-in” and reposition within the HD frame. Each also included a slight, basic color correction. Playback was tested in Final Cut Pro X and Premiere Pro, as well as from the QNAP system and the desktop. Quality settings were increased to “best quality” in FCPX and “full resolution” in Premiere Pro.

My complex timeline in Test 3 appeared to perform better in Premiere Pro. In Test 4, the edge was with Final Cut Pro X. No frames were dropped with any of the three machines playing back either from the QNAP or the desktop, when testing in FCPX. In Premiere Pro, the 2017 iMac Pro was solid in both situations. The 2015 iMac was mostly smooth at “full” and completely smooth at “1/2”. Unfortunately, the 2013 Mac Pro seemed to be the worst of the three, dropping frames even at “1/2 resolution” at each dissolve within the timeline.

Test 5 – timeline renders (multi-layered sequence)

In this test, I took the complex sequence from Test 3 and exported it to a ProRes master file. I used the QNAP-connected versions of the Premiere Pro and Final Cut Pro X timelines and rendered the exports to the desktop. In FCPX, I used its default Share function. In Premiere Pro, I queued the export to Adobe Media Encoder set to process in OpenCL. This was one of the few tests in which the 2013 Mac Pro put in a faster time, although the iMac Pro was very close.

Rendering to ProRes – Premiere Pro (via Adobe Media Encoder)

2013 Mac Pro – 1:29 min.

2015 iMac – 2:29 min.

2017 iMac Pro – 1:45 min.

Rendering to ProRes – Final Cut Pro X

2013 Mac Pro – 1:21 min.

2015 iMac – 2:29 min.

2017 iMac Pro – 1:22 min.

Test 6 – Adobe After Effects – rendering composition

My final test was to see how well the iMac Pro performed in rendering out compositions from After Effects. This was a 1080p/23.98 15-second composition. The bottom layer was a JPEG still with a Color Finesse correction. On top of that were five 1080p ProResLT video clips that had been slomo’ed to fill the composition length. Each was scaled, cropped, and repositioned. Each was beveled with a layer style and had a stylized effect added to it. The topmost layer was a camera layer with all other layers set to 3D, so the clips could be repositioned in z-space. Using the camera, I added a slight rotation/perspective change over the life of the composition.

Rendering to ProRes – After Effects

2013 Mac Pro – 2:37 min.

2015 iMac – 2:15 min.

2017 iMac Pro – 2:03 min.

Conclusion

After all of this testing, one is left with the answer “it depends”. The 2013 Mac Pro has two GPUs, but not every application takes advantage of that. Some apps tax all the available cores, so more, but slower, cores are better. Others go for the maximum speed on fewer cores. All things considered, the iMac Pro performed at the top of these three machines. It was either the best or close/equal to the best. But, this is an incremental difference in the 10% to 30% range. But, of course some of these numbers will be meaningful and others won’t, depending on the apps used and a user’s storage situation.

I will say that installing these three machines was the easiest I’ve ever done, including connecting them to the 10GigE storage network. The majority of our apps come from Adobe Create Cloud, the Mac App Store, or FxFactory (for plug-ins). Except for a few other installers, there was largely no need to track down installers, activation information, etc. for a zillion small apps and plug-ins. This made it a breeze and is certainly part of the attraction of the Mac ecosystem. The iMac Pro’s all-in-one design limits the required peripherals, which also contributes to a faster installation. Naturally, I can’t tell anyone if this is the right machine for them, but so far, the investment does look like the correct choice for this shop’s needs.

Here are two additional impressions by working editors: Thomas Grove Carter and Ben Balser. Also a very comprehensive review from AppleInsider.

©2018 Oliver Peters

Audio Splits and Stems in Premiere Pro Revisited

Creating multichannel, “split-track” master exports of your final sequences is something that should be a standard step in all of your productions. It’s often a deliverable requirement and having such a file makes later revisions or derivative projects much easier to produce. If you are a Final Cut Pro X user, the “audio lanes” feature makes it easy to organize and export sequences with isolated channels for dialogue, music, and effects. FCPX pros like to tweak the noses of other NLE users about how much easier it is in FCPX. While that’s more or less true – and, in fact, can be a lot deeper than simply a few aggregate channels – that doesn’t mean it’s particularly hard or less versatile in Premiere Pro.

Last year I wrote about how to set this up using Premiere submix tracks, which is a standard audio post workflow, common to most DAW and mix applications. Go back and read the article for more detail. But, what about sequences that are already edited, which didn’t start with a track configuration already set up with submix tracks and proper output routing? In fact, that’s quite easy, too, which brings me to today’s post.

Step 1 – Edit

Start out by editing as you always have, using your standard sequence presets. I’ve created a few custom presets that I normally use, based on the several standard formats I work in, like 1080p/23.976 and 1080p/29.97. These typically require stereo mixes, so my presets start with a minimum configuration of one picture track, two standard audio tracks, and stereo output. This is the starting point, but more video and audio tracks get added, as needed, during the course of editing.

Get into a habit of organizing your audio tracks. Typically this means dialogue and VO tracks towards the top (A1-A4), then sound effects (A5-A8), and finally music (A9-A12). Keep like audio types on their intended tracks. What you don’t want to do is mix different audio types onto the same track. For instance, don’t put sound effects onto tracks that you’ve designated for dialogue clips. Of course, the number of actual tracks needed for these audio types will vary with your projects. A simple VO+music sequence will only have two to four tracks, while dramatic entertainment pieces will have a lot more. Delete all empty audio tracks when you are ready to mix.

Mix for stereo output as you normally would. This means balancing components using keyframes and clip mixing. Then perform overall adjustments and “riding faders” in the track mixer. This is also where I add global effects, like compression for dialogue and limiting for the master mix.

Output your final mixed master file for delivery.

Step 2 – Multichannel DME sequences

The next step is to create or open a new multichannel DME (dialogue/music/effects) sequence. I’ve already created a custom preset, which you may download and install. It’s set up as 1080p/23.976, with two standard audio channels and three, pre-labelled stereo submix channels, but you can customize yours as needed. The master output is multichannel (8-channels), which is sufficient to cover stereo pairs for the final mix, plus isolated pairs for each of the three submixes – dialogue, music, and effects.

Next, copy-and-paste all clips from your final stereo sequence to the new multichannel sequence. If you have more than one track of picture and two tracks of audio, the new blank sequence will simply auto-populate more tracks once you paste the clips into it. The result should look the same, except with the additional three submix tracks at the bottom of your timeline. At this stage, the output of all tracks is still routed to the stereo master output and the submix tracks are bypassed.

Now open the track mixer panel and, from the pulldown output selector, switch each channel from master to its appropriate submix channel. Dialogue tracks to DIA, music tracks to MUS, and effects tracks to SFX. The sequence preset is already set up with proper output routing. All submixes go to output 1 and 2 (composite stereo mix), along with their isolated output – dialogue to 3 and 4, effects to 5 and 6, music to 7 and 8. As with your stereo mix, level adjustments and plug-in processing (compression, EQ, limiting, etc.) can be added to each of the submix channels.

Note: while not essential, multichannel, split-track master files are most useful when they are also textless. So, before outputting, I would recommend disabling all titles and lower third graphics in this sequence. The result is clean video – great for quick fixes later in the event of spelling errors or a title change.

Step 3 – Multichannel export

Now that the sequence is properly organized, you’ve got to export the multichannel sequence. I have created a mastering export preset, which you may also download. It works in the various Adobe CC apps, but is designed for Adobe Media Encoder workflows. This preset will match its output to the video size and frame rate of your sequence and master to a file with the ProRes4444 codec. The audio is set for eight output channels, configured as four stereo pairs – composite mix, plus three DME channels.

To test your exported file, simply reimport the multichannel file back into Premiere Pro and drop it onto a timeline. There you should see four independent stereo channels with audio organized according to the description above.

Presets

I have created a sequence and an export preset, which you may download here. I have only tested these on Mac systems, where they are installed into the Adobe folder contained within the user’s Documents folder. The sequence preset is placed into the Premiere Pro folder and the export preset into the Adobe Media Encoder folder. If you’ve updated the Adobe apps along the way, you will have a number of version subfolders. As of December 2017, the 12.0 subfolder is the correct location. Happy mixing!

©2017 Oliver Peters

6 Below

From IMAX to stereo3D, theaters have invested in various technologies to entice viewers and increase ticket sales. With a tip of the hat to the past, Barco has developed a new ultrawide, 3-screen digital projection system, which is a similar concept to Cinerama film theaters from the 1950s. But modern 6K-capable digital cinema cameras make the new approach possible with stunning clarity. There are currently 40 Barco Escape theaters worldwide, with the company looking for opportunities to run films designed for this format.

Enter Scott Waugh, director (Act of Valor, Need for Speed) and co-founder of LA production company, Bandito Brothers. Waugh, who is always on the lookout for new technologies, was interested in developing the first full-length, feature film to take advantage of this 3-screen, 7:1 aspect ratio for the entire length of the film. But Waugh didn’t want to change how he intended to shoot the film strictly for these theaters, since the film would also be distributed to conventional theaters. This effectively meant that two films needed to come out of the post-production process – one formatted for the Barco Escape format and one for standard 4K theaters.

6 Below (written by Madison Turner) became the right vehicle. This is a true life survival story of Eric LaMarque (played by Josh Harnett), an ex-pro hockey player turned snowboarder with an addiction problem, who finds himself lost in the ice and snow of the California Sierra mountains for a week. To best tell this story, Waugh and company trekked an hour or more into the mountains above Sundance, Utah for the production.

To handle the post workflow and co-edit the film with Waugh, editor Vashi Nedomansky (That Which I Love Destroys Me, Sharknado 2, An American Carol) joined the team. Nedomansky, another veteran of Bandito Brothers who uses Adobe Premiere Pro as his axe of choice, has also helped set up Adobe-based editorial workflows for Deadpool and Gone Girl. Ironically, in earlier years Nedomansky had been a pro hockey player himself, before shifting to a career in film and video. In fact, he played against the real Eric LeMarque on the circuit.

Pushing the boundaries

The Barco Escape format projects three 2K DCPs to cover the total 6K width. To accommodate this, RED 6K cameras were used and post was done with native media at 6K in Adobe Premiere Pro CC. My first question to Nedomansky was this. Why stay native? Nedomansky says, “We had always been pushing the boundaries at Bandito Brothers. What can we get away with? It’s always a question of time, storage, money, and working with a small team. We had a small 4-person post team for 6 Below, located near Sundance. So there was interest in not losing time to transcoding.

After some testing, we settled on decked out Dell workstations, because these could tackle the 6K RED raw files natively.” Two Dell Precision 7910 towers (20-core, 128GB RAM) with Nvidia Quadro M6000 GPUs were set up for editing, along with a third, less beefy HP quad-core computer for the assistant editor and visual effects. All three were connected to shared storage using a 10GigE network. Mike McCarthy, post production supervisor for 6 Below, set up the system. To keep things stable, they were running Windows 7 and stayed on the same Adobe Creative Cloud version throughout the life of the production. Nedomansky continues, “We kept waiting for the 6K to not play, but it never stopped in the six weeks of time that we were up there. My first assembly was almost three hours long – all in a single timeline – and I was able to play it straight through without any skips or stuttering.”

There were other challenges along the way. Nedomansky explains, “Almost all of the film was done as single-camera and Josh has to carry it with his performance as the sole person on screen for much of the film. He has to go through a range of emotions and you can’t just turn that on and off between takes. So there were lots of long 10-minute takes to convey his deterioration within the hostile environmental conditions. The story is about a man lost in the wild, without much dialogue. The challenge is how to cut down these long takes without taking away from his performance. One solution was to go against the grain – using jump cuts to shorten long takes. But I wanted to look for the emotional changes or a physical act to motivate a jump cut in a way that would make it more organic. In one case, I took a 10-minute take down to 45 seconds.”

When you have a film where weather is a character, you hope that the weather will cooperate. Nedomansky adds, “One of our biggest concerns going in, was the weather. Production started in March – a time when there isn’t a lot of snow in Utah. Fortunately for us, a day before we were supposed to start shooting, they had the biggest ‘blizzard’ of the winter for four days. This saved us a lot of VFX time, because we didn’t have to create atmospherics, like snow in front of the lens. It was there naturally.”

Using the Creative Cloud tools to their fullest

6 Below features an extensive percentage of visual effects shots. Nedomansky says, “The film has 1500 shots with 205 of them as VFX shots. John Carr was the assistant editor and visual effects artist on the film and he did all of the work in After Effects and at 6K resolution, which is unusual for films. Some of the shots included ‘day for night’ where John had to add star plates for the sky. This meant rotoscoping behind Josh and the trees to add the plates. He also had to paint out crew footprints in the snow, along with the occasional dolly track or crew member in a shot. There were also some split screens done at 6K right in Premiere Pro.”

The post schedule involved six weeks on-set and then fourteen more weeks back in LA, for a 20-week total. After that, sound post and grading (done at Technicolor). The process to correctly format the film for both Barco and regular theaters almost constituted posting two films. The RED camera image is 6144 x 2592 pixels, Barco Escape 6144 x 864, and a 4K extraction 4096 x 2160. Nedomansky explains, “The Barco frame is thin and wide. It could use the full width, but not height, of the full 6K RED image. So, I had to do a lot of ‘animation’ to reposition the frame within the Barco format. For the 4K version, the framing would be adjusted accordingly. The film has about 1500 shots, but we didn’t use different takes for the two versions. I was able to do this all through reframing.”

In wrapping up our conversation, Nedomansky adds, “I played hockey against Eric and this added an extra layer of responsibility. He’s very much still alive today. Like any film of this type, it’s ‘based on’ the true story, but liberties are taken. I wanted to make sure that Eric would respect the result. Scott and I’ve done films that were heavy on action, but this film shows another directorial style – more personal and emotional with beautiful visuals. That’s also a departure for me and it’s very important for editors to have that option.”

6 Below was released on October 13 in cinemas.

Read Vashi’s own write-up of his post production workflow.

Images are courtesy of Vashi Visuals.

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / Creative Planet Network

©2017 Oliver Peters

Adobe’s Late-2017 Creative Cloud Updates

According to Cisco, 82% of internet traffic will be video by 2021. Adobe believes over 50% of that will be produced video and not just simple user content. This means producers will be expected to produce more – working faster and smarter. In the newest Creative Cloud update, Adobe has focused on just such workflow improvements. These were previewed at IBC and will be released later this year.

Adobe Premiere Pro CC

With this release, Adobe has finally enabled the ability to have more than one project file open at the same time. You can move clips and sequences between open projects. In addition, projects can be locked by the user, making Premiere Pro the first NLE to enable multiple open projects and locking within a single application. In addition, Adobe has expanded project types to include both Team Projects (your project is in the cloud) and shared projects (your project is local). The latter is ideal for SAN/NAS environments and adds Avid-style collaboration.

Editors will enjoy specific timeline enhancements, like “close all gaps” and up to 16 label colors. The Essential Graphics panel gets some love with font filtering and a visual font preview window. Graphics templates will now include a minimum duration, so that these clips can be extended on the timeline, while leaving the fade-in and fade-out constant.

Adobe is doubling down on VR using its acquired Skybox technology. New are 19 immersive effects and transitions specific to VR projects. These are needed to properly seam wraparound edges when effects are added to VR clips. They are all GPU-only effects; however, as some VR clips can be 5K wide and larger, performance can be challenging. Nevertheless, Adobe reports decent performance with 6K VR clips at half-resolution on laptops like the HP z820 or the 2017 15” MacBook Pro. There is also an immersive playback viewer designed for HMDs (head mount displays). It will display the image along with the Premiere Pro timeline window.

Premiere Pro’s non-VR editing updates, including shared projects, are explained well by the reTooled blog (video here).

Adobe Audition

Audition is the place to finalize your Premiere Pro mix, so a new auto-ducking mix tool has been added. This is based on Sensei, Adobe’s umbrella name for its artificial intelligence technologies. To use auto-ducking, the editor simply has to adjust sensitivity, amount of reduction, and fades, and then let Audition do the rest. Under AI, it will detect pauses in the dialogue and adjust music volume accordingly.

Other Audition enhancements include a timeline timecode overlay for the video viewer, the ability to simultaneously adjust dual-sided fades on clips, and new record and punch-in preferences for ADR work (“looping”).

After Effects

Here’s another example of this focus on time-savings. After Effects gains a new start-up window to set-up the first composition. It also gains a keyboard command editor, and in this release, will add the same font previewing tools as Premiere Pro. The biggest new feature is an expansion of the expression controls. These will be tied to data files for the quick updating of template graphics. If you create a graphic – such as a map of the US with certain information displayed by colors for each state – and it’s based on a template tied to data, then changing the supporting data information will automatically update the graphic. Other enhancements include GPU acceleration for third-party plug-ins that use the Mercury Playback Engine.

Character Animator

This live-capture, cartoon animation tool finally comes out of beta. A new feature will be the adjustment of the responsiveness of the animation tracking. This will permit live animation to look more hand-drawn. Actions can now be triggered by MIDI control panels. Triggers are editable in the timeline with a waveform for better matching of lip-sync.

There’s plenty of good user news, too, including the the release of 6 Below, an ultra-wide film designed for the Barco three-screen format. It was edited by Vashi Nedomansky using Premiere Pro. Other Premiere Pro news includes the dramatic feature film, Only The Brave, edited by Bill Fox, and Coup 53, a documentary in post being cut by Walter Murch. Both of these noted editors have been using Premiere Pro.

For more in-depth info, check out these links for a solid overview of Adobe’s soon-to-come Creative Cloud application updates:

ProVideo Coalition – Scott Simmons

Premiere Bro blog

Adobe’s own Digital Video & Audio blog

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / Creative Planet Network

©2017 Oliver Peters

Customize Premiere Pro with Workspaces

Most days I find myself in front of Adobe Premiere Pro CC, both by choice and by the jobs I’m booked on. Yes, I know, for some it’s got bugs and flaws, but for me it’s generally well-behaved. Given the choices out there, Premiere Pro feels the most natural to me for an efficient editing workflow.

Part of what makes Premiere Pro work for me is the ability to customize and fine-tune the user interface layout for the way I like to work or the tasks at hand. This is made possible by Adobe’s use of panels for the various tools and windows within the interface. These panels can float or be docked, stacked, or tabbed in a wonderfully large range of configuration possibilities. The Adobe CC applications come with a set of preset workspaces, but these can be customized and augmented as needed. I won’t belabor this post with an in-depth explanation of workspaces, because there are three very good explanations over at PremiereBro. (Click these links for Post 1, Post 2, and Post 3). My discussion with Simon Ubsdell made me think the topic would make a good blog post here, too.

It all starts with displays

I started my NLE journey with Avid and in the early days, two screens (preferably of a matching size) were essential. Bins on the left with viewers and timeline on the right. However, in the intervening years, screen resolution has greatly increased and developers have made their UIs work on dual and single-screen configurations. Often today, two screens can actually be too much. For example, if you have two side-by-side 27” (or larger) displays, the distance from the far left to the far right is pretty large. This makes your view of the record window quite a bit off-center. To counter-balance this issue, in a number of set-ups, I’ve taken to working with two different sized displays: a centered 27”, plus a smaller 20” display to the left. Sometimes I’ll have a broadcast display to the right. The left and right displays are at an angle, which means that my main working palette – the viewers and timeline – are dead-center on the display in front of me.

I also work with a laptop from time to time, as well as do some jobs in Final Cut Pro X. Generally a laptop is going to be the only available display and FCPX is well-optimized for single-screen operation. As a result, I’ve started to play around with working entirely on a single display – only occasionally using the landscape of the secondary display on my left when really needed. The more I work this way, the more I find that I can work almost entirely on one screen, if that screen offers a decent resolution.

So in order to optimize my workflow, I’ve created a number of custom Premiere Pro workspaces to serve my needs. (Click any of these images to see the enlarged view.)

Edit layout 1

This is the classic two-screen layout. Bins on the left and dual-viewer/timeline on the right. I use this when I have a lot of footage and need to tab a number of bins or expand a bin to see plenty of list details or thumbnails.

Edit layout 2

This layout collapses the classic layout onto a single screen, with the project panel, viewers and timeline.

Edit layout 3

This layout is the one I use most often, because most of what I need is neatly grouped as a tab or a stack on the left and right sides of a single viewer window. Note that there are actually source and record viewers, but they are stacked behind each other. So if I load a clip or match frame from the timeline, the source viewer becomes foremost for me to work with. Do an edit or go back to the timeline and the viewer switches back to the record side.

By tabbing panels on the left side, I can select the panel needed at the time. There is a logical order to what is on the left or right side. For instance, scopes are left and Lumetri Color controls on the right – thus, both can be open. Or I can drag an effect from the right pane’s Effects palette onto the Effects Control panel on the left.

Edit layout 4

This is the most minimalist of my workspaces. Just the viewers and timeline. Anything else can be opened as a floating window for temporary access. The point of this workspace is 100% focus on the timeline, with everything else hidden.

Edit layout 5

This workspace is designed for the “pancake timeline” style of editing. For example, build a “selects” timeline and then pull from that down to your main editing timeline.

Edit layout 6

This is another dual-display layout optimized for color correction. Lumetri Color and Effects Control panel flanking the viewer, with the Lumetri Scopes fullscreen on the lefthand monitor.

There are certainly plenty of other ways you can configure a workspace to suit your style. Some Premiere Pro editors like to use the secondary screen to display the timeline panel fullscreen. Or maybe use it to spread out their audio track mixer. Hence the beauty of Adobe’s design – you can make it as minimal or complex as you like. There is no right or wrong approach – simply whatever works to improve your editing efficiency.

Note: Footage shown within these UI screen grabs is courtesy of Imagine Dragons and Adobe from the Make the Cut Contest.

©2017 Oliver Peters