A First Look at Postlab Cloud

Apple developed Final Cut Pro X around single-editor workflows. As such, professional editing teams who wanted to use this tool for collaborative editing have been challenged to develop their own solutions. One approach was Postlab, which was developed in-house at Dutch broadcaster Evanglische Omroep (EO). In order to expand the product as a commercial application, lead developer Jasper Siegers decided to move it under the Hedge umbrella. This required the app to be rebuilt with new code before it could be offered to the FCPX market. That time has come and Postlab is now available as Postlab Cloud.

As the name implies, Postlab Cloud hosts your FCPX libraries “in the cloud,” i.e. on Postlab’s servers. Some production companies or broadcasters are reticent to have their editing computers connected online, but it’s important to note that only libraries and no media or caches are hosted by Postlab. This keeps the transfer times fast and file sizes light. Cache and media files stay local, whether on your machine or on connected shared storage. Postlab sets up accounts based on site licenses and numbers of users. Each user is assigned a log-in based on an e-mail address and a password. This means that a production hosted by Postlab can be accessed by authorized users anywhere in the world, provided there’s a viable internet connection.

The owner of the account can set up productions and organize them within folders. Each production is a collection or bundle of one or more Final Cut Pro X libraries. If you have ever worked with Final Cut Server in the FCP7 days, then the Postlab workflow is very similar. Once a production has been created, an editor can log in, download the library (a check-out step), edit in it, and then upload the changed version (a check-in step). As part of this upload, the Postlab interface prompts you to add comments describing the work you’ve done. Only one editor at a time can download a library and have write access; however, other users can still download it with read-only access. If you have two editors ping-ponging work on the same library file, then one has to upload it (check in) before the other editor can download it (check out) for their edits.

Getting started

I decided to test Postlab Cloud in two scenarios: a) multiple workstations connected to a shared storage network, and b) two disconnected editors collaborating over long distances. To start, once an account has been established, any editor using Postlab Cloud must install the small Postlab application. Since the app controls some of Final Cut’s functions, you will be prompted to enable GUI Scripting in your privacy preferences. In order for Postlab to work properly, media and cache files need to be outside of the library bundle. When you first download a library, you may be prompted to change your settings. In a networked environment with media on shared storage, the path to the media should be the same on each workstation. This means when Editor A finishes and checks in the production and then Editor B checks it back out, you generally will not need to relink the media files on Editor B’s system. Therefore, this edit collaboration can proceed fluidly.

Once a production has been downloaded, the library file exists as a temporary file on the local machine and not the network. This means that Postlab can still work in tandem with storage solutions that don’t normally perform well with FCPX libraries. In addition to this temporary library file, the Final Cut backup library is also stored in the location you have designated. If you are working in a networked, collaborative environment, then the advantage Postlab offers is version tracking and the ability for multiple users to open a library file (only one with write access).

Long distance

The second scenario is working with other editors outside of your facility. The first step is to get the media to the outside editor. You could certainly send a drive, but that isn’t efficient in time nor cost, especially across continents. If you only need creative editing and not finishing services, then low-res, proxy files are fine. So I converted my 4K UHD ProRes HQ files to 960 x 540 H264 (3Mbps) files and used Frame.io to transfer them over the internet. The key to proper relinking when you are done is to set audio to pass-through when converting this files. This was a double-system sound shoot, so I uploaded both the H264 videos files and the sound recordist’s WAV files to Frame and then downloaded them again at the other end (my home). Now I had media in both locations. The process would be the same even if it were two editors in two different countries.

The first Postlab step is to create and upload this FCPX library. Once that has been established, any authorized user with a Postlab log-in can access the production. I decided to go back and forth on this production between my home and the facility and also using different user log-ins – thus simulating a team of remote editors. Each time I did this, version changes were tracked by Postlab. If I were working with multiple editors, I would have been able to see what tasks each had performed.

It’s important to note that when you collaborate in this way, each editor should be using the same effects, LUTs, and Motion templates, otherwise some things will appear offline. Since the path to the media was different at home versus at the facility, each time I went between the two, checking in and then checking out the production, media files would appear offline. A simple relink fixed this, but it’s something to be aware of. Once totally done, I could relink to the high-res camera files and “finish” the project back at the office.

Wrap-up

When you upload a library back to Postlab, that open FCPX library is closed within Final Cut Pro X on your system, because you have checked it back in. Once you log out of Postlab, the temporary library file is moved to the trash. If you need a local version of the library, then export it from the Postlab app.

Once you get the hang of it, collaboration is simple using Postlab Cloud. Library files stay light without any of the sort of corruption caused by using services like DropBox. My test project included synchronized multi-cam clips and multi-channel audio. Each time during this exchange clips, projects, and edits showed up as expected when going between the various users. Whether or not Apple ever tackles collaboration within Final Cut Pro X is an unknown. But why wait? If you need that today, then Postlab Cloud offers a solid answer.

The relaunched Postlab Cloud includes three plans, which are priced per user/per year: Postlab, Postlab Pro, and Postlab Server. The first tier only allows for library version tracking and sharing. Pro allows for a lot more libraries to be shared and comes with more features. Server is a dedicated Postlab Cloud server for larger teams or those that require IT-specific features like Active Directory. Finally, Hedge/Postlab plans to ship a local version of Postlab – designed for use within local networks – soon after launch.

Postlab has now expanded to include Premiere Pro users.

Check out the Postlab tutorials for more information.

The article was originally written for FCP.co.

©2020 Oliver Peters

ADA Compliance

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has enriched the lives of many in the disabled community since its introduction in 1990. It affects all of our lives, from wheelchair-friendly ramps on street corners and business entrances to the various accessibility modes in our computers and smart devices. While many editors don’t have to deal directly with the impact of the ADA on media, the law does affect broadcasters and streaming platforms. If you deliver commercials and programs, then your production will be affected in one way or another. Typically the producer is not directly subject to compliance, but the platform is. This means someone has to provide the elements that complete compliance as part of any distribution arrangement, whether it is the producer or the outlet itself.

Two components are involved to meet proper ADA compliance: closed captions and described audio (aka audio descriptions). Captions come in two flavors – open and closed. Open captions or subtitles consists of text “burned” into the image. It is customarily used when a foreign language is spoken in an otherwise English program (or the equivalent in non-English-speaking countries). Closed captions are enclosed in a data stream that can be turned on and off by the viewer, device, or the platform and are intended to make the dialogue accessible to the hearing-impaired. Closed captions are often also turned on in noisy environments, like a TV playing in a gym or a bar.

Audio descriptions are intended to aid the visually-impaired. This is a version of the audio mix with an additional voice-over element. An announcer describes visual information that is not readily obvious from the audio of the program itself. This voice-over fills in the gaps, such as “man climbs to the top of a large hill” or “logos appear on screen.”

Closed captions

Historically post houses and producers have opted to outsource caption creation to companies that specialize in those services. However, modern NLEs enable any editor to handle captions themselves and the increasing enforcement of ADA compliance is now adding to the deliverable requirements for many editors. With this increased demand, using a specialist may become cost prohibitive; therefore, built-in tools are all the more attractive.

There are numerous closed caption standards and various captioning file formats. The most common are .scc (Scenarist), .srt (SubRip), and .vtt (preferred for the web). Captions can be supplied as “embedded” (secondary data within the master file) or as a separate “sidecar” file, which is intended to play in sync with the video file. Not all of these are equal. For example, .scc files (embedded or as sidecar files) support text formatting and positioning, while .srt and .vtt do not. For example, if you have a lower-third name graphic come on screen, you want to move any caption from its usual lower-third, safe-title position to the top of the screen while that name graphic is visible. This way both remain legible. The .scc format supports that, but the other two don’t. The visual appearance of the caption text is a function of the playback hardware or software, so the same captions look different in QuickTime Player versus Switch or VLC. In addition, SubRip (.srt) captions all appear at the bottom, even if you repositioned them to the top, while .vtt captions appear at the top of the screen.

You may prefer to first create a transcription of the dialogue using an outside service, rather than simply typing in the captions from scratch. There are several online resources that automate speech-to-text, including SpeedScriber, Simon Says, Transcriptive, and others. Since AI-based transcription is only as good as the intelligibility of the audio and dialects of the speakers, they all require further text editing/correction through on online tool before they are ready to use.

One service that I’ve used with good results is REV.com, which uses human transcribers for greater accuracy, as well as offering on online text editing tool. The transcription can be downloaded in various formats, including simple text (.txt). Once you have a valid transcription, that file can be converted through a variety of software applications into .srt, .scc, or .vtt files. These in turn can be imported into your preferred NLE for timing, formatting, and positioning adjustments.

Getting the right look

There are guidelines that captioning specialists follow, but some are merely customary and do not affect compliance. For example, upper and lower case text is currently the norm, but you’ll still be OK if your text is all caps. There are also accepted norms when English (or other) subtitles appear on screen, such as for someone speaking in a foreign language. In those cases, no additional closed caption text is used, since the subtitle already provides that information. However, a caption may appear at the top of the screen identifying that a foreign language is being spoken. Likewise, during sections with only music or ambient sounds, a caption may briefly identifying it as such.

When creating captions, you have to understand that readability is key, so the text will not always run perfectly in sync with the dialogue. For instance, when two actors engage in rapid fire dialogue, each caption may stay on longer than the spoken line. You can adjust the timing against that scene so that they eventually catch up once the pace slows down. It’s good to watch a few captioned programs before starting from scratch – just to get a sense of what works and what doesn’t.

If you are creating captions for a program to run on a specific broadcast network or streaming services, then it’s a good idea to find out of they provide a style guide for captions.

Using your NLE to create closed captions

Avid Media Composer, Adobe Premiere Pro, DaVinci Resolve, and Apple Final Cut Pro X all support closed captions. I find FCPX to be the best of this group, because of its extensive editing control over captions and ease of use. This includes text formatting, but also display methods, like pop-on, paint-on, and roll-up effects. Import .scc files for maximum control or extract captions from an existing master, if your media already has embedded caption data. The other three NLEs place the captions onto a single data track (like a video track) within which captions can be edited. Final Cut Pro X places them as a series of connected clips, like any other video clip or graphic. If you perform additional editing, the FCPX magnetic timeline takes care of keeping the captions in sync with the associated dialogue.

Final Cut’s big plus for me is that validation errors are flagged in red. Validation errors occur when caption clips overlap, may be too short for the display method (like a paint-on), are too close to the start of the file, or other errors. It’s easy to find and fix these before exporting the master file.

Deliverables

NLEs support the export of a master file with embedded captions, or “burned” into the video as a subtitle, or the captions exported as a separate sidecar file. Specific format support for embedded captions varies among applications. For example, Premiere Pro – as well as Adobe Media Encoder – will only embed captioning data when you export your sequence or encode a file as a QuickTime-wrapped master file. (I’m running macOS, so there may be other options with Windows.)

On the other hand, Apple Compressor and Final Cut Pro X can encode or export files with embedded captions for formats such as MPEG2 TS, MPEG 2 PS, or MP4. It would be nice if all these NLEs supported the same range of formats, but they don’t. If your goal is a sidecar caption file instead of embedded data, then it’s a far simpler and more reliable process.

Audio descriptions

Compared to closed captions, providing audio description files is relatively easy. These can either be separate audio files – used as sidecar files for secondary audio – or additional tracks on the delivery master. Sometimes it’s a completely separate video file with only this version of the mix. Advanced platforms like Netflix may also require an IMF (Interoperable Master Format) package, which would include an audio description track as part of that package. When audio sidecar files are requested for the web or certain playback platforms, like hotel TV systems, the common deliverable formats are .mp3 or .m4a. The key is that the audio track should be able to run in sync with the rest of the program.

Producing an audio description file doesn’t require any new skills. A voice-over announcer is describing any action that occurs on screen, but which wouldn’t otherwise make sense if you were only listening to audio without that. Think of it like a radio play or podcast version of your TV program. This can be as simple as fitting additional VO into the gaps between actor/host/speaker dialogue. If you have access to the original files (such as a Pro Tools session) or dialogue/music/effects stems, then you have some latitude to adjust audio elements in order to fit in the additional voice-over lines. For example, sometimes the off-camera dialogue may be moved or edited in order to make more space for the VO descriptions. However, on-camera/sync dialogue is left untouched. In that case, some of this audio may be muted or ducked to make space for even longer descriptions.

Some of the same captioning service providers also provide audio description services, using their pool of announcers. Yet, there’s nothing about the process that any producer or editor couldn’t handle themselves. For example, scripting the extra lines, hiring and directing talent, and producing the final mix only require a bit more time added to the schedule, yet permits the most creative control.

ADA compliance has been around since 1990, but hasn’t been widely enforced outside of broadcast. That’s changing and there are no more excuses with the new NLE tools. It’s become easier than ever for any editor or producer to make sure they can provide the proper elements to touch every potential viewer.

For additional information, consult the FCC guidelines on closed captions.

The article was originally written for Pro Video Coalition.

©2020 Oliver Peters

Video Technology 2020 – Shared Storage

Shared storage used to be the domain of “heavy iron” facilities with Avid, Facilis, and earlier Apple Xserve systems providing the horsepower. Thanks to advances in networking and Ethernet technology, shared storage is accessible to any user. Whether built-in or via adapters, modern computers can tap into 1Gbps, 10Gbps, and even higher, networking speeds. Most computers can natively access Gigabit Ethernet networks (1Gbps) – adequate for SD and HD workflows. Computers designed for the pro video market increasingly sport built-in 10GbE ports, enabling comfortable collaboration with 4K media and up. Some of today’s most popular shared storage vendors include QNAP, Synology, and LumaForge.

This technology will become more prolific in 2020, with systems easier to connect and administer, making shared storage as plug-and-play as any local drives. Network Attached Storage (NAS) systems can service a single workstation or multiple users. In fact, companies like QNAP even offer consumer versions of these products designed to operate as home media servers. Even LumaForge sells a version of its popular Jellyfish through the online Apple Store. A simple, on-line connection guide will get you up and running, no IT department required. This is ideal for the individual editor or small post shop.

Expect 2020 to see higher connection speeds, such as 40GbE, and NAS proliferation even more widespread. It’s not just a matter of growth. These vendors are also interested in extending the functionality of their products beyond being a simple bucket for media. NAS systems will become full-featured media hubs. For example, if you an Avid user, you are familiar with their Media Central concept. In essence, this means the shared storage solution is a platform for various other applications, including the editing software. There are additional media applications that include management apps for user permission control, media queries, and more. Like Avid, the other vendors are exploring similar extensibility through third-party apps, such as Axle Video, Kyno, Hedge, Frame.io, and others. As such, a shared network becomes the whole that is greater than the sum of its parts.

Along with increased functionality, expect changes in the hardware, too. Modern NAS hardware is largely based on RAID arrays with spinning mechanical drives. As solid state (SSD) storage devices become more affordable, many NAS vendors will offer some of their products featuring RAID arrays configured with SSDs or even NVMe systems. Or a mixture of the two, with the SSD-based units used for short-term projects or cache files. Eventually the cost will come down enough so that large storage volumes can be cost-effectively populated with only SSDs. Don’t expect to be purchasing 100TB of SSD storage at a reasonable price in 2020; however, that is the direction in which we are headed. At least in this coming year, mechanical drives will still rule. Nevertheless, start looking at some percentage of your storage inventory to soon be based on SSDs.

Click here for more on shared storage solutions.

Originally written for Creative Planet Network.

©2020 Oliver Peters

Video Technology 2020 – The Cloud

The “cloud” is merely a collection of physical data centers in multiple locations around the world – not much different than a small storage center you might have. Of course, they employ more advanced systems for power, redundancy, and security than you do. When you work with one of the companies marketing cloud-based editing or a review-and-approval service, like Frame.io or Wipster, they provide the user-facing interface, but are actually renting storage space from one of the big three cloud providers – Google, Amazon, or Microsoft.

There are three reasons that I’m skeptical about ubiquitous, cloud-based editing (with media at native resolutions) in the short term: upload speeds, cost, and security.

Speed

5G (fifth generation wireless) is the technology predicted to offer adequate speeds and low latency for native 4K (and higher) media. While 5G will be a great advancement for many things, it’s a short distance signal requiring more transmission spots than current wireless technology. Full coverage in most metro areas, let alone widespread geographical coverage worldwide, will take many years to fully deploy. Other than potential camera-to-cloud uploads of proxy media in the field, 5G won’t soon be the killer solution. Current technology still dictates that if you want the fastest possible upload speeds for large amounts of data, then you have to tap as close as possible to the internet’s backbone.

Cost

Cloud storage is cheap, but extensive upload and download times aren’t. Unfortunately modern video resolutions also result in huge amounts of data generated on every shoot. Uploading native 4K media for a week-long production is considerably more expensive than FedEx and overnight charges to ship drives. What about long term storage? Let’s say that all of your native media is in the cloud and you pay according to a monthly or annual subscription plan. But what if you want to stop? That media will have to be downloaded and stored locally, which will incur data rate charges, as well as your time to download everything.

Security

Think these sites are unequivocally secure? Look at any data hack at a major company. Security is such a concern in our business that most major movie studios won’t let their editors connect the computers to the internet. Many make these editors check their cell phones at the door. No matter how secure, it’s going to be a hard sell, except for limited slices of the production, such as cloud-based VFX rendering.

I do believe 2020 will be a year in which many will take advantage of some modes of long distance, cloud-based edit services using low-res proxy media. Increasingly some services will be used to move dailies and deliverables around the globe via the cloud. But that’s a big difference from cloud-based editing becoming the norm. One edit scenario many will experiment with is to store the edit project files in the cloud, but with the media mirrored locally at each edit site. This way only the lightweight files used for edit collaboration need be moved over the internet. Think of this as Google Docs for editing. Adobe already offers a version of this, but I suspect you’ll see others, including solutions for Final Cut Pro X. So while true cloud-based editing is not a near-term solution, bits and pieces will become increasingly commonplace.

Originally written for Creative Planet Network.

©2020 Oliver Peters

Every NLE is a Database

Apple’s Final Cut Pro X has spawned many tribal arguments since its launch eight years ago. There have been plenty of debates about the pros and cons of its innovative design and editing model. One that I’ve heard a number of times is that FCPX is a relational database, while traditional editing applications are more like an Excel spreadsheet. I can see how the presentation of a bin in the list view format might convey that impression, but that doesn’t make it accurate. Spreadsheets are a grid of cells that are based on a combination of mathematical formulae, regardless of whether the info is text or numbers. All nonlinear editing applications (NLE) use a relational database to track media, although the type and format of this database will differ among brands. In all cases, these function altogether differently than how a spreadsheet functions.

It started with film

When all editing was done on film, the editors cut work print, which was a reversal copy printed from the camera negative. Edits made on the work print were eventually duplicated on the pristine negative by a negative cutter, based on a cut list. Determining where to cut and join the film segments together was based on a list of edit points corresponding to the source rolls of the film, plus a foot+frame count for specific edit points. The work print, which the editors could physically cut and splice as needed, was effectively an abstraction of – and stand-in for – the negative.

In order to enable the process, assistant editors (or in some cases, the editor) created a handwritten log, known as a codebook. This started with the dailies and included all the pertinent information, such as source roll, shoot days/dates, scenes/takes, director’s notes, editor’s notes, and so on. The codebook was a physical database that allowed an editor to know what the options were and where to find them.

During the videotape-editing era prior to NLEs, any sort of database for tracking source information was still manual. Only the cut list portion, known as the edit decision list, could be generated by the edit computer, based on the timecode values recorded on the tape. Timecode became the electronic equivalent of the foot+frame count of physical film.

Fast forward to the modern era with file-based camera acquisition and ubiquitous, inexpensive editing software. The file recorded by the camera is a container of sorts that holds essence (audio and video) and metadata (information about the essence). Some cameras generate a lot of metadata and others don’t. One example of this type of metadata that we all encounter is the information embedded into digital still photos, which can include location, lens data, and a ton more.

When clips are ingested/imported into your NLE – whether into a project, bin, folder, or an event – the NLE links to the essence of the media clips on the hard drive or camera card and brings in whatever clip metadata is understood by that application. In addition, the user can add and merge a lot more metadata derived from other sources, like the sound recorder, script supervisor notes, electronic script, and manually-added data.

The clip that you see in the bin/event/folder is an abstraction for the actual audio and video media, just like work print was for film editors. The bin/folder/event data entries are like the film editor’s codebook and are tracked in the internal database used by that application to cross-reference the clip with the actual stored media. Since a clip in the app’s browser is simply an abstraction, it can appear in multiple places at the same time – in various bins and sequences. The internal database makes sure that each of these instances of the clip all reference the same piece of media accurate down to the video frame or audio sample.

It doesn’t matter how the bin looks

The spreadsheet comparison is based on how bins have appeared in most NLEs, including Final Cut Pro “legacy,” Avid Media Composer, and others. Unfortunately that opinion is usually based on a narrow exposure to other NLEs. As I said, at the core, every NLE is a relational database. And so, there are other things that can be tracked and/or ways it can be displayed.

For instance, older Quantel edit systems displayed source information based on what we would consider a smart search view today. The entirety of the source material was not displayed in front of the editor, since it was a single-screen layout. Entering data into a search field would sift through and present clips matching the requested data.

Avid Media Composer systems also track media based on Script Integration (sometimes incorrectly referred to as ScriptSync, which is a separate Avid option). This is a graphical bin layout with the script text displayed on screen and clips linked to coverage of that scene. Media Composer and now Premiere Pro both permit a freeform clip view for a bin, in which the editor can freely rearrange the position of the clip thumbnails within the bin window. This visual juxtaposition by the user of clips conveys important information to the editor.

All NLEs have multiple ways to present the data and aren’t limited to a grid-style list view that resembles a spreadsheet or a grid of clip thumbnails. Enabling these alternate views takes a lot more than simply cross-referencing your bin and timelines against a set of edit points. That’s where databases come in and why every NLE is built around one.

How can you be in two places at once when you’re not anywhere at all?

My apologies to Firesign Theatre. A huge aspect of the Final Cut Pro X edit workflow is the use of keyword collections. You aren’t limited to being in just a single bin thanks to them. While this is a selling point for FCPX, it is also well within the capabilities of most NLEs.

Organizing your event (bin) media in FCPX can start by assigning keywords to each clip. Each new keyword used creates a keyword collection – sort of a “smart sub-bin.” As you assign one or more keywords to a clip, FCPX automatically sorts the clip into those corresponding keyword collections.  For example, let’s say you have a series of wide and close-up shots featuring both male and female actors. Clip 1 might be sorted into WIDE and MAN; Clip 2 into WIDE and WOMAN; Clip 3 into WOMAN and CLOSE-UP. So then the keyword collection for WIDE displays Clip 1 and Clip 2; MAN displays Clip 1; WOMAN displays Clip 2 and Clip 3; CLOSE-UP displays Clip 3.

Once this initial step is completed it enables the editor to view source clips in a more focused manner. Instead of wading through 100 clips in the event (bin) each time, the editor may only have to deal with 10 clips in the CLOSE-UP keyword collection. Or in any other collection. The beauty of FCPX’s interface design is the speed and fluidity with which this can be accomplished. This feature is one of the hallmarks of the application and no other NLE does it nearly as elegantly. In fact, FCPX tackles the challenge of narrowing down the browser options through three methods – ratings, keyword collections, and smart collection (described in this linked tutorial by Simon Ubsdell).

As elegantly as Final Cut tackles this task, that doesn’t mean that other NLEs can’t function in a similar manner. Within Premiere Pro, those exact same keywords can be assigned to the clips. Then simply create a set of search bins using those same keywords as search criteria. The result is the exact same type of distribution of clips into collections where multiple clips can appear in multiple bins at the same time. Likewise, the editor doesn’t need to go through the full set of clips in a bin, but can concentrate on the small handful in any given search bin. Media Composer also offers search functions, as well as, custom sift routines, which enable you to only display clips matching specific column details, like a custom keyword.

Most NLEs can only store one set of in/out edit marks on a clip within a bin at any given time. On the other hand, Final Cut Pro X offers range-based selection. Clips can retain multiple in/out selections at once. Nevertheless other NLE aren’t behind here either. The obvious solution that most editors use when this is needed is to create a subclip, which can be a duplicate of the entire clip or a portion from within a single clip. Need to pull multiple sections of the clip? Simply create multiple subclips. In effect, these are the same as range-based selections in Final Cut Pro X. Admittedly the FCPX method is more fluid and straightforward. Nevertheless, range-based selections are virtual subclips that are dynamically created by the editor; but unlike subclips, these can’t be moved separately to other events (bins). Two ways to tackle a very similar need.

The bottom line is that under the hood, all NLEs are still very much the same. Let me emphasize that I’m not arguing the superiority, speed, or elegance of one approach or tool over another. Every company has their own set of unique features that appeal to different types of editors. They are simply different methods to place information at your fingertips, get roadblocks out of the way, and thus to make editing more creative and enjoyable.

©2019 Oliver Peters