Virtual Production

Thanks to the advances in video game software and LED display technology, virtual production has become an exciting new tool for the filmmaker. Shows like The Mandalorian have thrust these techniques into the mainstream. To meet the demand, numerous companies around the world are creating virtual production sound stages, often referred to as “the volume.” I recently spoke with Pixomondo and Trilith Studios about their moves into virtual production.

Pixomondo

Pixomondo is an Oscar and Emmy-winning visual effects company with multiple VFX and virtual production stages in North America and Europe. Their virtual production credits include the series Star Trek: Strange New Worlds and the upcoming Netflix series Avatar: The Last Airbender.

The larger of the two virtual production stages at Pixomodo’s Toronto facilities is 300 feet x 90 feet and 24 feet tall. The LED screen system is 72 feet in diameter. Josh Kerekas is Pixomondo’s Head of Virtual Production.

Why did Pixomondo decide to venture into virtual production?

We saw the potential of this new technology and launched a year-long initiative to get our virtual production division off the ground. We’re really trying to embrace real-time technology, not just in the use case of virtual production in special studios, but even in traditional visual effects.

Click here to continue this article at postPerspective.

©2022 Oliver Peters

Analogue Wayback, Ep. 4

Divide 24 into 60.

Back in the 1970s and as late as the early 80s, film editors working on film ruled the world of high-end regional and national TV commercials. They had the agency connections and, as such, controlled the workflow in post. Most of the top commercials were shot on film, so after the lab processed the negative the editors (or editorial companies) took it from there. Often they would subcontract and outsource any further lab services, video finishing, and the sound mix as part of their arrangement with the client.

Timecode-based video editing was just starting to grab hold in the mid-70s. Early attempts at creative, nonlinear (“offline”) editing systems were commercially unsuccessful. What stuck were the linear (“online”) edit suites built around switchers and  2″ VTRs. Occasionally producers, directors, and agencies would go directly into an online bay and cut start-to-finish there. But at the highest end, spots were typically edited with the agency folks sitting around a flatbed film edit bench, like a KEM or Steenbeck. Online bays and editors were considered technical and used to conform the edit, thus replacing the work previously done by labs to finish and distribute those TV spots.

Frame rate and interlaced – the two flies in the ointment

This was the world of interlaced NTSC in the US (PAL in much of the rest of the world). There was no HD, progressive scan, or 24p video (23.976). NTSC operated and continues to operate at 29.97fps using interlaced fields – i.e. two unique images (fields) per frame, each containing half the content of that whole frame. Therefore, NTSC is really 60 images per second, or expressed in technical terms, 59.94i. Film is typically shot at a true 24fps (or now offset to 23.976) where each frame is a complete image. This presents the dilemma of converting 24 film images into 60 video fields (let’s keep it simple and skip the 23.976 vs 24 and 59.94 vs 60 discussion).

Every four film frames (out of 24) corresponds to five video frames (out of 30). Telecine engineers devised the scheme of 3:2 pulldown to transfer film to video. The pattern of corresponding frames or cadence is 2:3:2:3. Consecutive film frames are alternately scanned for two or three video fields. In this cadence of so-called whole and split frames, the first film frame in the sequence covers both fields of the first video frame. The next three film frames continue the cadence until we reach the fifth film frame/sixth video frame. At this point the film and video frames sync up again and the cadence repeats itself. If you park on a single video frame and see only one film image, that’s a whole frame. If you see a blend of two film images, then that’s a split frame.

The hybrid editing workflow model

This 2:3:2:3 cadence is how film aligns with interlaced NTSC video, but there’s also the issue of different counting methods. Video editors work in SMPTE timecode – 00:00:00:00 – hours, minutes, seconds, frames. Film editors work in feet and frames – 0000+00 – 16 frames/foot for 35mm and 40 frames/foot for 16mm. Where’s the rosetta stone to go between them? 

Since transfer of the negative to video was already possible in the 70s, a hybrid editing model developed. Shoot film – transfer to video – edit film – conform the film edit on video. That approach goes like this. Workprint is created by the lab from the negative. This workprint is cut by the film editor. The negative itself isn’t cut (at least in the case of most commercials). The key is to get the proper cross-reference between the two forms of media. To do that you need a common starting point for each film roll.

The key

The lab punches a hole at the start of each negative film roll and also adds edge numbers for feet and frames. The hole punch becomes 0000+00. During the film-to-tape transfer of the negative, the telecine operator/colorist syncs the hole punch to a zero timecode value on the videotape, such as 01:00:00:00. Now there’s a common starting point. 0000+00 = 01:00:00:00. In the whole and split frame cadence (2:3:2:3) the first, second, and fourth film frames have matching whole frame video frames (:00, :01, :04). The third film frame is split across two video frames (:02, :03).

Next, the film editor works through the creative edit of the commercial. When the cut of the workprint is locked, a cut list is delivered to the online edit facility. This is similar to a video EDL (edit decision list), except that events are listed in feet and frames instead of timecode. From the online video editor’s point of view this foot/frame number isn’t an absolute value, but rather an offset from the common 01:00:00:00 start point on the videotape transfer.

For each edit, the offset between the two must be calculated in order to get to the correct matching shot on the video tape. It really doesn’t matter whether the source image lands on a split or whole frame timecode, because the source is unedited camera original. However, it does matter in the timeline, because the duration on the film clip determines the out-point of the video edit. In order to maintain the proper rhythm of the film editor’s cut, certain frames will be ambiguous. The video editor will have to make a judgement call whether to trim one frame forward or backwards.

A cheat sheet to the rescue

I worked as on online editor in Jacksonville in the 1970s. One of our clients was the largest ad agency in Florida. Their creative director had been a film editor in an earlier life. Any time large campaigns for one of their brands was produced, he would lock himself into a cutting room at the local film lab and edit the spots on their Steenbeck. It then became our job at the post house to translate that cut into a video master based on the steps I’ve just described. 

Fortunately, my boss was experienced in both film and video editing. He took it upon himself to create a handy conversion chart that cross-referenced 10 minutes of film (the approximate length of a film roll) between a foot/frame count and timecode. He even marked all of the ambiguous frames. Using this chart, it was easy to take a film number from the cut list, look up the timecode on the chart and type that into the edit controller. Preview the edit, trim as needed, and commit to the edit. Rinse and repeat.

I’m sure that this sounds rather old school to most readers, but it’s one of those arcane skills that still has validity today. Film is not quite dead yet. Avid still integrates some features of cut list conversion. As a business model, film editorial companies of the past are top commercial edit shops today, using Media Composer, Premiere, and Final Cut in place of Steenbecks and KEMs. So while the technology may have changed, many of the concepts haven’t.

©2022 Oliver Peters

Building a Scene

The first thing any film student learns about being an editor is that a film is not put together simply the way the editor thinks it should be. The editor is there as the right hand of the director working in service to the story.

Often a film editor will start out cutting while the film is still being shot. The director is on set or location and is focused on getting the script captured. Meanwhile, the editor is trying to “keep up to camera” and build the scenes in accordance with the script as footage is received. Although it is often said that the final edit is the last rewrite of any film, this first edited version is intended to be a faithful representation of the script as it was shot. It’s not up to the editor’s discretion to drop, change, or re-arrange scenes that don’t appear to work. At least not at this stage of the process.

Any good editor is going to do the best job they can to “sell” their cut to the director by refining the edits and often adding basic sound design and temp music. The intent is to make the story flow as smoothly as possible. Whether you call this a first assembly or the editor’s cut, this first version is usually based on script notes, possibly augmented by the director’s initial feedback during downtime from filming. Depending on the director, the editor might have broad license to use different takes or assemble alternate versions. Some directors will later go over the cut in micro detail, while others only focus on the broad strokes, leaving a lot of the editor’s cut intact.

Anatomy of a scene

Many editors make it their practice not to be on the set. Unfortunately the days of a crew watching “dailies” with the director are largely gone. Thus the editor misses seeing the initial reaction a director has to the material that has been filmed. This means that the editor’s first input will be the information written on the script and notes from the script supervisor. It’s important to understand that information.

A scene can be a complex dialogue interaction with multiple actors that may cover several pages. Or, it can be a simple transition shot to bridge two other scenes. While scenes are generally shot in multiple angles that are edited together, there are also scenes done as a single, unedited shot, called “oners.” A oner can be a complex, choreographed SteadiCam shot or it can be a simple static shot, like a conversation between a driver and passenger only recorded as a two-shot though the windshield. There are even films that are captured and edited as if they were a continuous oner, such as 1917 and Birdman or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance). In fact, these films were cleverly built with seamless edits. However, individual component scenes certainly were actual oners.

The lined script

Scripts are printed as one-sided pages. When placed in a binder, you’ll have the printed text on the right and a blank facing page on the left (the backside of the previous script page). The script supervisor will physically or electronically (ScriptE) draw lines through the typed, script side of a page. These lines are labelled and represent each set-up and/or angle used to film the scene. Specific takes and notes will be written onto the left facing page.

Script scenes are numbered and systems vary around the world along with variations made by individual script supervisors. For US crews, it’s common to number angles and takes alphanumerically according to their scene numbers. A “master shot” will usually be a wide shot that covers the entire length of the scene. So for scene 48, the master shot will be labelled 48 or sometimes 48-ws, if it’s a wide shot. The scene/take number will also appear on the slate. The supervisor will draw a vertical line through the scene from the start to the end of the capture. Straight segments of the line indicate the person speaking is on camera. Wiggly or zig-zag segments indicate that portion of the scene will be on a different angle.

After the master, the director will run the scene again with different camera set-ups. Maybe it’s a tighter angle or a close-up of an individual actor in the scene. These are numbered with a letter suffix, such as 48A, 48B, and so on. A close-up might also be listed as 48A-cu, for example. Lengthy scenes can be tough to get down all at once without mistakes. So the director may film “pick-ups” – portions of a scene, often starting in the middle. Or there may be a need to record an alternate version of the scene. Pick-ups would be labelled 48-PU and an alternate would be A48. Sometimes a director will record an action multiple times in a row without stopping camera or re-slating. This might be the case when the director is trying to get a variety of actions from an actor handling a prop. Such set-ups would be labelled as a “series” (e.g. 48F-Ser).

On the left facing page, the script supervisor will keep track of these angles and note the various takes for each – 48-1, 48-2, 48-3, 48A-1, 48A-2, etc. They will also add notes and comments. For example, if a prop didn’t work or the actor missed an important line. And, of course, the take that the director really liked will be circled and is known as the “circle take.” In the days of physical film editing, only circle takes were printed from the negative to work print for the editors to use. With modern digital editing, everything is usually loaded in the editing system. The combination of drawn, lined set-ups with straight and zig-zag line segments together with circle takes provides the editor with a theoretical schematic of how a scene might be cut together.

The myth of the circle take

A circle take indicates a take that the director preferred. However, this is often based on the script supervisor’s observation of the director’s reaction to the performance. The director may or may not actually have indicated that’s the one and only take to use. Often a circle take is simply a good performance take, where actors and camera all hit their marks, and nothing was missed. In reality, an earlier take might have been better for the beginning of the scene, but the actors didn’t make it all the way through.

There are typically three scenarios for how a director will direct the actors in a scene. A) The scene has already been rehearsed and actions defined, so the acting doesn’t change much from take to take. The director is merely tweaking nuance out of the actors to get the best possible performance. B) The director has the actors ramp up their intensity with each take. Early takes may have a more subtle performance while later takes feature more exaggerated speech and mannerisms. C) The director wants a different type of performance with each take. Maybe sarcastic or humorous for a few, but aggressive and angry for others.

Depending on the director’s style, a circle take can be a good indication of what the editor should use – or it can be completely meaningless. In scenario A, it will be pretty easy to figure out the best performances and usually circle takes and other notes are a good guide. Scenario B is tougher to judge, especially in the early days of a production. The level of intensity should be consistent for a character throughout the film. Once you’ve seen a few days of dailies you’ll have a better idea of how characters should act in a given scene or situation. It’s mainly a challenge of getting the calibration right. Scenario C is toughest. Without actually cutting some scenes together and then getting solid, direct feedback from the director, the editor is flying blind in this situation.

Let’s edit the scene

NLEs offer tools to aid the editor in scene construction. If you use Avid Media Composer, then you can avail yourself of script-based editing. This lets you organize script bins that mimic a lined script. The ScriptSync option removes some of the manual preparation by phonetically aligning ingested media to lines of dialogue. Apple Final Cut Pro editors can also use keywords to simulate dialogue lines.

A common method going back to film editing is the organization of “KEM rolls.” These are string-outs of selected takes placed back-to-back, which enables fast comparisons of different performances. In the digital world this means assembling a sequence of best takes and then using that sequence as the source for your scene edit. Adobe Premiere Pro and Media Composer are the two main NLEs that facilitate easy sequence-to-sequence editing.

The first step before you make any edit is to review all of the dailies for the scene. The circle takes are important, but other takes may also be good for portions of the scene. The director may not have picked circle takes for the other set-ups – 48A, 48B, etc. If that case, you need to make that selection yourself.

You can create custom columns in a Media Composer bin. Create one custom column to rank your selections. An “X” in that column is for a good take. “XX” for one that can also be considered. Add your own notes in another custom column. Now you can use Media Composer’s Custom Sift command to show/hide clips based on these entries. If you only want to see the best takes displayed in the bin, then sift for anything with an X or XX in that first custom column. All other clips will be temporarily hidden. This is a similar function to showing Favorites in a Final Cut Pro Event. At this point you can either build a KEM Roll (selects) first or just start editing the scene.

Cutting a scene together is a bit like playing chess or checkers. Continuity of actors’ positions, props, and dialogue lines often determines whether a certain construct works. If an actor ad libs the lines, you may have a lengthy scene in which certain bits of dialogue are in a different order or even completely different words from one take to the next. If you pick Take 5 for the master shot, this can block your use of some other set-ups, simply because the order of the dialogue doesn’t match. Good editing can usually overcome these issues, but it limits your options and may result in a scene that’s overly cutty.

Under ideal conditions, the lines are always said the same way and in the right order, props are always handled the same way at the same times, and actors are in their correct positions at the same points in the dialogue. Those scenes are a dream to cut. When they aren’t, that’s when an editor earns his or her pay.

When I cut a scene, I’ve reviewed the footage and made my selections. My first pass is to build the scene according to what’s in my head. Once I’ve done that I go back through and evaluate the cut. Would a different take be better on this line? Should I go to a close-up here? How about interspersing a few reaction shots? After that round, the last pass is for refinement. Tighten the edits, trim for J-cuts and L-cuts, and balance out audio levels. I now have a scene that’s ready to show to the director and hopefully put into the ongoing assembly of the film. I know the scene will likely change when I start working one-on-one with the director, but it’s a solid starting point that should reflect the intent and text of the script.

Happy editing!

©2021 Oliver Peters

The Nuances of Overcranking

The concept of overcranking and undercranking in the world of film and video production goes back to the origins of motion picture technology. The earliest film cameras required the camera operator to manually crank the film mechanism – they didn’t have internal motors. A good camera operator was partially judged by how constant of a frame rate they could maintain while cranking the film through the camera.

Prior to the introduction of sound, the correct frame rate was 18fps. If the camera was cranked faster than 18fps (overcranking), then the playback speed during projection was in slow motion. If the camera was cranked slower than 18fps (undercranking), the motion was sped up. With sound, the default frame rate shifted from 18 to 24fps. One by-product of this shift is that the projection of old B&W films gained that fast, jerky motion we often incorrectly attribute to “old time movies” today. That characteristic motion is because they are no longer played at their intended speeds.

While manual film cranking seems anachronistic in modern times, it had the benefit of in-camera, variable-speed capture – aka speed ramps. There are modern film cameras that include controlled mechanisms to still be able to do that today – in production, not in post.

Videotape recording

With the advent of videotape recording, the television industry was locked into constant recording speeds. Variable-speed recording wasn’t possible using tape transport mechanisms. Once color technology was established, the standard record, playback, and broadcast frame rates became 29.97fps and/or 25.0fps worldwide. Motion picture films captured at 24.0fps were transferred to video at the slightly slower rate of 23.976fps (23.98) in the US and converted to 29.97 by employing pulldown – a method to repeat certain frames according to a specific cadence. (I’ll skip the field versus frame, interlaced versus progressive scan discussion.)

Once we shifted to high definition, an additional frame rate category of 59.94fps was added to the mix. All of this was still pinned to physical videotape transports and constant frame rates. Slomo and fast speed effects required specialized videotape or disk pack recorders that could playback at variable speeds. A few disk recorders could record at different speeds, but in general, it was a post-production function.

File-based recording

Production shifted to in-camera, file-based recording. Post shifted to digital, computer-based, rather than electro-mechanical methods. The nexus of these two shifts is that the industry is no longer locked into a limited number of frame rates. So-called off-speed recording is now possible with nearly every professional production camera. All NLEs can handle multiple frame rates within the same timeline (albeit at a constant timeline frame rate).

Modern video displays, the web, and streaming delivery platforms enable viewers to view videos mastered at different frame rates, without being dependent on the broadcast transmission standard in their country or region. Common, possible system frame rates today include 23.98, 24.0, 25.0, 29.97, 30.0, 59.94, and 60.0fps. If you master in one of these, anyone around the world can see your video on a computer, smart phone, or tablet.

Record rate versus system/target rate

Since cameras can now record at different rates, it is imperative that the production team and the post team are on the same page. If the camera operator records everything at 29.97 (including sync sound), but the post is designed to be at 23.98, then the editor has four options. 1) Play the files as real-time (29.97 in a 23.98 sequence), which will cause frames to be dropped, resulting in some stuttering on motion. 2) Play the footage at the slowed speed, so that there is a one-to-one relationship of frames, which doesn’t work for sync sound. 3) Go through a frame rate conversion before editing starts, which will result in blended and/or dropped frames. 4) Change the sequence setting to 29.97, which may or may not be acceptable for final delivery.

Professional production cameras allow the operator to set both the system or target frame rate, in addition to the actual recording rate. These may be called different names in the menus, but the concepts are the same. The system or target rate is the base frame rate at which this file will be edited and/or played. The record rate is the frame rate at which images are exposed. When the record rate is higher than the target rate, you are effectively overcranking. That is, you are recording slow motion in-camera.

(Note: from here on I will use simplified instead of integer numbers in this post.) A record rate of 48fps and a target rate of 24fps results in an automatic 50% slow motion playback speed in post, with a one-to-one frame relationship (no duplicated or blended frames). Conversely, a record rate of 12fps with a target rate of 24fps results in playback that is fast motion at 200%. That’s the basis for hyperlapse/timelapse footage.

The good news is that professional production cameras embed the pertinent metadata into the file so that editing and player software automatically knows what to do. Import an ARRI Alexa file that was recorded at 120fps with a target rate of 24fps (23.98/23.976) into Final Cut Pro X or Premiere Pro and it will automatically playback in slow motion. The browser will identify the correct target rate and the clip’s timecode will be based on that same rate.

The bad news as that many cameras used in production today are consumer products or at best “prosumer” cameras. They are relatively “dumb” when it comes to such settings and metadata. Record 30fps on a Canon 5D or Sony A7S and you get 30fps playback. If you are cutting that into a 24fps (23.98) sequence, you will have to decide how to treat it. If the use is for non-sound-sync B-roll footage, then altering the frame rate (making it play slow motion) is fine. In many cases, like drone shots and handheld footage, that will be an intentional choice. The slower footage helps to smooth out the vibration introduced by using such a lightweight camera.

The worst recordings are those made with iPhone, iPads, or similar devices. These use variable-bit-rate codecs and variable-frame-rate recordings, making them especially difficult in post. For example, an iPhone recording at 30.0fps isn’t exactly at that speed. It wobbles around that rate – sometimes slightly slower and something faster. My recommendation for that type of footage is to always transcode to an optimized format before editing. If you must shoot with one of these devices, you really need to invest in the FiLMiC Pro application, which will give you a certain level of professional control over the iPhone/iPad camera.

Transcode

Time and storage permitting, I generally recommend transcoding consumer/prosumer formats into professional, optimized editing formats, like Avid DNxHD/HR or Apple ProRes. If you are dealing with speed differences, then set your file conversion to change the frame rate. In our 30 over 24 example (29.97 record/23.98 target), the new footage will be slowed accordingly with matching timecode. Recognize that any embedded audio will also be slowed, which changes its sample rate. If this is just for B-roll and cutaways, then no problem, because you aren’t using that audio. However, one quirk of Final Cut Pro X is that even when silent, the altered sample rate of the audio on the clip can induce strange sound artifacts upon export. So in FCPX, make sure to detach and delete audio from any such clip on your timeline.

Interpret footage

This may have a different name in any given application, but interpret footage is a function to make the application think that the file should be played at a different rate than it was recorded at. You may find this in your NLE, but also in your encoding software. Plus, there are apps that can re-write the QuickTime header information without transcoding the file. Then that file shows up at the desired rate inside of the NLE. In the case of FCPX, the same potential audio issues can arise as described above if you go this route.

In an NLE like Premiere or Resolve, it’s possible to bring in 30-frame files into a 24-frame project. Then highlight these clips in the browser and modify the frame rate. Instant fix, right? Well, not so fast. While I use this in some cases myself, it comes with some caveats. Interpreting footage often results in mismatched clip linking when you are using the internal proxy workflow. The proxy and full-res files don’t sync up to each other. Likewise, in a roundtrip with Resolve, file relinking in Resolve will be incorrect. It may result in not being able to relink these files at all, because the timecode that Resolve looks for falls outside of the boundaries of the file. So use this function with caution.

Speed adjustments

There’s a rub when work with standard speed changes (not frame rate offsets). Many editors simply apply an arbitrary speed based on what looks right to them. Unfortunately this introduces issues like skipping frames. To perfectly apply slow or fast motion to a clip, you MUST stick to simple multiples of that rate, much like traditional film post. A 200% speed increase is a proper multiple. 150% is not. The former means you are playing every other frame from a clip for smooth action. The latter results in only one fourth of the frames being eliminated in playback, leaving you with some unevenness in the movement. 

Naturally there are times when you simply want the speed you picked, even if it’s something like 177%. That’s when you have to play with the interpolation options of your NLE. Typically these include frame duplication, frame blending, and optical flow. All will give you different looks. When it comes to optical flow, some NLEs handle this better than others. Optical flow “creates” new  in-between frames. In the best case it can truly look like a shot was captured at that native frame rate. However, the computation is tricky and may often lead to unwanted image artifacts.

If you use Resolve for a color correction roundtrip, changes in motion interpolation in Resolve are pointless, unless the final export of the timeline is from Resolve. If clips go back to your NLE for finishing, then it will be that software which determines the quality of motion effects. Twixtor is a plug-in that many editors use when they need even more refined control over motion effects.

Doing the math

Now that I’ve discussed interpreting footage and the ways to deal with standard speed changes, let’s look at how best to handle off-speed clips. The proper workflow in most NLEs is to import the footage at its native frame rate. Then, when you cut the clip into the sequence, alter the speed to the proper rate for frames to play one-to-one (no blended, duplicate, or skipped frames). Final Cut Pro X handles this in the best manner, because it provides an automatic speed adjustment command. This not only makes the correct speed change, but also takes care of any potential audio sample rate issues. With other NLEs, like Premiere Pro, you will have to work out the math manually. 

The easiest way to get a value that yields clean frames (one-to-one frame rate) is to simply divide the timeline frame rate by the clip frame rate. The answer is the percentage to apply to the clip’s speed in the timeline. Simple numbers yield the same math results as integer numbers. If you are in a 23.98 timeline and have 29.97 clips, then 24 divided by 30 equals .8 – i.e. 80% slow motion speed. A 59.94fps clip is 40%. A 25fps clip is 96%.

Going in the other direction, if you are editing in a 29.97 timeline and add a 23.98 clip, the NLE will normally add a pulldown cadence (duplicated frames). If you want this to be one-to-one, if will have to be sped up. But the calculation is the same. 30 divided by 24 results in a 125% speed adjustment. And so on.

Understanding the nuances of frame rates and following these simple guidelines will give you a better finished product. It’s the kind of polish that will make your videos stand out from those of your fellow editors.

© 2019 Oliver Peters

Preparing your Film for Distribution

First-time filmmakers are elated when their film finally gets picked up for distribution. But the hardest work may be next. Preparing your film and companion materials can be a very detailed and complex endeavor if you didn’t plan for it properly from the outset. While each distributor and/or network has slightly different specs, the general requirements are the same. Here are the more common ones.

1. Film master. Supplying a master file is self-evident, but the exact details are not consistent across the board. Usually some additional post will be required when you get distribution. You will need to add the distributor’s logo animation up front, make sure the first video starts at a specified timecode, and that you have audio channels in a certain configuration (see Item 2).

In spite of the buzz over 4K, many distributors still want 1920×1080 files at 23.98fps (or possibly 24.0fps) – usually in the Apple ProResHQ* video codec. The frame rate may differ for broadcast-oriented films, such as documentaries. In that case, 29.97fps might be required. Also, some international distributors will require 25.0fps. If you have any titles over the picture, then “textless” material must also be supplied. Generally, you can add those sections, such as the video under opening titles, at the end of the master, following the end credits of the film.

*Occasionally film festivals and some distributors will also require a DCP package instead of a single QuickTime or MXF master file.

2. Audio mixes and tracks. Stereo and/or 5.1 surround mixes are the most commonly requested audio configurations. You’ll often be asked to supply both the full mixes and the “stems”. The latter are separate submixes of only dialogue, sound effects, and music. Some distributors want these stems as separate files, while others want them attached to the master file. These are easy to supply if the film was originally mixed with that in mind. But if your mixer only produced a final mix, then it’s a lot harder to go back and get new stem tracks. A typical channel assignment on a delivery master is eight tracks for the 5.1 surround mix (L, R, C, LFE, Ls, Rs), the stereo mix (left, right), and a stereo M&E mix (combined music and effects, minus the dialogue).

3. Subtitles and captions. In order to be compliant with various accessibility regulations, you will likely have to supply closed captioning sidecar files that sync to your master. There are numerous formats and several NLEs allow you to create these. However, it’s far easier and usually more accurate to have a service create your files. There are numerous vendors, with prices starting as low as $1/minute. Closed captions should not be confused with subtitles, also called open captions. These appear on-screen and are common when someone is speaking in another language. Check with your distributor if this applies to you, because they may want the video without titles, in the event of international distribution.

4. Legal documentation. There’s a wide range of paperwork that you should be prepared to turn over. This includes licensing for any music and stock footage, talent releases, contracts, and deal memos. One important element is to be able to prove “chain-of-title”. You must be able to prove that you own the rights to the story and the film. Music is often a sticking point for indie filmmakers. If you used temp music or had a special deal for film festival showings, now is the time to pay up. You won’t get distribution until all music is clearly licensed. Music info should also include a cue sheet (song names, length, and position within the film).

5. Errors and omissions insurance. This is a catch-all policy you’ll need to buy to satisfy many distributors. It’s designed to cover you in the event that there’s a legal claim (frivolous or otherwise) against the film. For example, if someone comes out of the woodwork saying that you ripped them off and stole their story idea and that you now owe them money.

6. Trailer. Distributors often request a trailer to be used to promote the film. The preference seems to be that the trailer is under two minutes in length. It may or may not need to include the MPAA card at the front and should have a generic end tag (no “coming soon” or date at the end). Often a simple stereo mix will be fine, but don’t take that for granted. If you are going through full sound post anyway in creating a trailer, be sure to generate the full audio package – stereo and surround mixes and splits in various combinations, just like your feature film master.

7. Everything else. Beyond this list, you’ll often be asked for additional “nice to have” items. These include screeners (DVD or web), behind-the-scenes press clips or photos, frame grabs from the film, a final script, biographies of the creative team and lead actors, as well as a poster image.

As you can see, none of this seems terribly difficult if you are aware of these needs going in. But if you have prepared none of this in advance, it will become a mad scramble at the end to keep the distributor happy.

Originally written for RedShark News

©2018 Oliver Peters