Carol

df0116_carol_smFilms tend to push social boundaries and one such film this season is Carol, starring Cate Blanchett, Rooney Mara and Kyle Chandler. It’s a love story between two women, but more importantly it’s a love story between two people.  The story is based on the novel The Price of Salt by Patricia Highsmith, who also penned The Talented Mr. Ripley and Strangers on a Train. Todd Haynes (Six by Sondheim, Mildred Pierce) directed the film adaptation. Carol was originally produced in 2014 and finished in early 2015, but The Weinstein Company opted to time the release around the start of the 2015 awards season.

Affonso Gonçalves (Beasts of the Southern Wild, Winter’s Bone), the editor on Carol, explains, “Carol is a love story about two women coming to terms with the dissatisfaction of their lives. The Carol character (Cate Blanchett) is unhappily married, but loves her child. Carol has had other lesbian affairs before, but is intrigued by this new person, Therese (Rooney Mara), whom she encounters in a department store. Therese doesn’t know what she wants, but through the course of the film, learns who she is.”

Gonçalves and Haynes worked together on the HBO mini-series Mildred Pierce. Gonçalves says, “We got along well and when he got involved with the production, he passed along the script to me and I loved it.” Carol was shot entirely on Super 16mm film negative, primarily as a single-camera production. Only about five percent of the production included A and B cameras. Ed Lachman (Dark Blood, Stryker, Selena) served as the cinematographer. The film negative was scanned in log color space and then a simple log-to-linear LUT (color look-up table) was applied to the Avid DNxHD36 editorial files for nice-looking working files.

Creating a timeless New York story

Cincinnati served as the principal location designed to double for New York City in the early 1950s. The surrounding area also doubled for Iowa and Pennsylvania during a traveling portion of the film. Gonçalves discussed how Haynes and he worked during this period. “The production shot in Cincinnati, but I was based at Goldcrest Films in New York. The negative was shipped to New York each day, where it was processed and scanned. Then I would get Avid editorial files. The cutting room was set up with Avid Media Composer and ISIS systems and my first assistant Perri [Pivovar] had the added responsibilities on this project to check for film defects. Ed would also review footage each day; however, Todd doesn’t like to watch dailies during a production. He would rely on me instead to be his eyes and ears to make sure that the coverage that he needed was there.”

He continues, “After the production wrapped, I completed my editor’s cut, while Todd took a break. Then he spent two weeks reviewing all the dailies and making his own detailed notes. Then, when he was ready, he joined me in the cutting room and we built the film according to his cut. Once we had these two versions – his and mine – we compared the two. They were actually very similar, because we both have a similar taste. I had started in May and by September the cut was largely locked. Most of the experimenting came with structure and music.”

The main editorial challenges were getting the right structure for the story and tone for the performances. According to Gonçalves, “Cate’s and Rooney’s performances are very detailed and I felt the need to slow the cutting pace down to let you appreciate that performance. Rooney’s is so delicate. Plus, it’s a love story and we needed to keep the audience engaged. We weren’t as concerned with trimming, but rather, to get the story right. The first cut was two-and-a-half hours and the finished length ended up at 118 minutes. Some scenes were cut out that involved additional characters in the story. Todd isn’t too precious about losing scenes and this allowed us to keep the story focused on our central characters.”

“The main challenge was the party scene at the end. The story structure is similar to Brief Encounters (a 1946 David Lean classic with the beginning and ending set in the same location). Initially we had two levels of flashbacks, but there was too much of a shift back and forth. We had a number of ‘friends and family’ screenings and it was during these that we discovered the issues with the flashbacks. Ultimately we decided to rework the ending and simplify the temporal order of the last scene. The film was largely locked by the sixth or seventh cut.”

As a period piece, music is very integral to Carol. Gonçalves explains, “We started with about 300 to 400 songs that Todd liked, plus old soundtracks. These included a lot of singers of the time, like Billie Holiday. I also added ambiences for restaurants and bars. Carter (Burwell, composer) saw our cut at around the second or third screening with our temp score. After that he started sending preliminary themes to for us to work into the cut. These really elevated the tone of the film. He’d come in every couple of weeks to see how his score was working out with the cut, so it became a very collaborative process.”

The editing application that an editor uses is an extension of how he works. Some have very elaborate routines for preparing bins and sequences and others take a simpler approach. Gonçalves fits into the latter group. He says, “Avid is like sitting down and driving a car for me. It’s all so smooth and so fast. It’s easy to find things and I like the color correction and audio tools. I started working more sound in the Avid on True Detective and its tools really help me to dress things up. I don’t use any special organizing routines in the bins. I simply highlight the director’s preferred takes; however, I do use locators and take a lot of handwritten notes.”

Film sensibilities in the modern digital era

Carol was literally the last film to be processed at Deluxe New York before the lab was shut down. In addition to a digital release, Technicolor also did a laser “film-out” to 35mm for a few release prints. All digital post-production was handled by Goldcrest Films, who scanned the Super 16mm negative on an ARRI laser scanner at 3K resolution for a 2K digital master. Goldcrest’s Boon Shin Ng handled the scanning and conforming of the film. Creating the evocative look of Carol fell to New York colorist John J. Dowdell III. Trained in photography before becoming a colorist in 1980, Dowdell has credits on over 200 theatrical and television films.

Unlike other films, Dowdell was involved earlier in the overall process. He explains, “Early on, I had a long meeting with Todd and Ed about the look of the film. Todd had put together a book of photographs and tear sheets that helped with the colors and fashions from the 1950s. While doing the color grading job, we’d often refer back to that book to establish the color palette for the film.” Carol has approximately 100 visual effects shots to help make Cincinnati look like New York, circa 1952-53. Dowdell continues, “Boon coordinated effects with Chris Haney, the visual effects producer. The ARRI scanner is pin-registered, which is essential for the work of the visual effects artists. We’d send them both log and color corrected files. They’d use the color corrected files to create a reference, preview LUT for their own use, but then send us back finished effects in log color space. These were integrated back into the film.”

Dowdell’s tool of choice is the Quantel Pablo Rio system, which incorporates color grading tools that match his photographic sensibilities. He says, “I tend not to rely as much on the standard lift/gamma/gain color wheels. That’s a video approach. Quantel includes a film curve, which I use a lot. It’s like an s-curve tool, but with a pivot point. I also use master density and RGB printer light controls. These are numeric and let you control the color very precisely, but also repeatably. That’s important as I was going through options with Todd and Ed. You could get back to an earlier setting. That’s much harder to do precisely with color wheels and trackball controls.”

The Quantel Pablo Rio is a complete editing and effects system as well, integrating the full power of Quantel’s legendary Paintbox. This permitted John Dowdell and Boon Schin Ng to handle some effects work within the grading suite. Dowdell continues, “With the paint and tracking functions, I could do a lot of retouching. For example, some modern elements, like newer style parking meters, were tracked, darkened and blurred, so that they didn’t draw attention. We removed some modern signs and also did digital clean-up, like painting out negative dirt that made it through the scan. Quantel does beautiful blow-ups, which was perfect for the minor reframing that we did on this film.”

The color grading toolset is often a Swiss Army Knife for the filmmaker, but in the end, it’s about the color. Dowdell concludes, “Todd and Ed worked a lot to evoke moods. In the opening department store scene, there’s a definite green cast that was added to let the audience feel that this is an unhappy time. As the story progresses, colors become more intense and alive toward the end of the film. We worked very intuitively to achieve the result and care was applied to each and every shot. We are all very proud of it. Of all the films I’ve color corrected, I feel that this is really my masterpiece.”

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Sicario

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Sicario is an emotional and suspenseful look into the dark side of the war on drugs as told by Canadian director Denis Villeneuve (Enemy, Prisoners, Incendies). It teams a by-the-book FBI agent Kate (Emily Blunt) with an interagency task force led by CIA agent Matt (Josh Brolin). The shadowy mix of characters includes Alejandro (Benicio Del Toro) – an enigmatic contractor working with Matt. As the special operation proceeds with increasingly extra-legal means, we learn that there’s more to Alejandro than meets the eye – part former crusading prosecutor and part hitman. Kate and the audience are forced to question the morality of whether the ends justify the means as told through an increasingly tense and suspenseful story.

From Wagner to Hollywood

The key to driving such a thriller is often the editor, which in this case was Joe Walker (12 Years a Slave, Hunger, Harry Brown). I had a chance to discuss Sicario with Walker as he took a break from cutting the next Villeneuve film, Story of Your Life. Walker’s road to Hollywood is different than many other top-level, feature film editors. While editors often play musical instruments as a hobby, Walker actually studied to be a classical composer in his native England.

df0416_sicario_7Walker explains, “It’s always been a hard choice between films and writing music. I remember when I was ten years old, I’d run 8mm films of the Keystone Cops at slow speed with Richard Wagner playing against it and kind of get depressed! So, these were twin interests of mine. I studied classical composing and balanced two careers of editing and composing up until the mid-2000s. I used my music degree to get a job with the BBC where I moved into assistant editor roles. The BBC is very cautious and it took me eleven years before finally being allowed to cut drama as an editor. This was all on 16mm film and then I moved into digital editing, first with Lightworks and later Avid. I always wanted to work on bigger films, but I felt there was a glass ceiling in England. Big studio films that came in would always bring their own editors. The big break for me was 12 Years a Slave, which provided the opportunity to move to Los Angeles.”

Controlling the story, characters and rhythm

df0416_sicario_6Sicario has a definite rhythm designed to build suspense. There are scenes that are slow but tense and others that are action-packed. Walker explains his philosophy on setting the pace, “Since working with Steve McQueen (director, 12 Years a Slave) I’ve been known for holding shots a long time to build tension. This is contrary to the usual approach, which says you build tension by an increasingly faster cutting pace. Sometimes if you hold a shot, there’s even more tension if the story supports it. I’ll even use the trick of invisible split screens in order to hold a take longer than the way it was originally shot. For example, the left side of one take might hold long enough, but something breaks on the right. I’ll pull the right side from a different take in order to extend the end of the complete shot.”

Another interesting aspect to Sicario is the sparseness of the musical score, in favor of sound design. Walker comments, “Music is in an abusive relationship with film. Putting on my composer hat, I don’t want to tell the audience what to think only by the music. It’s part of the composite. I try to cut without a temp score, because you have to know when it’s only the music that drives the emotion. I’ll even turn the sound down and cut it as if it was a silent movie, so that I can feel the rhythm visually. Then sound effects add another layer and finally music. In Sicario, I made use of a lot of walkie-talkie dialogue to fill in spaces – using them almost like a sound effect.  Jóhann Jóhannsson (composer, Prisoners, The Theory of Everything, Foxcatcher) was thrilled to get a clean output without someone else’s preconceived temp score, because it allowed him to start with a clean palette.”

df0416_sicario_3Editing shapes the characters. Walker says, “Taylor Sheridan’s script was fantastic, so I don’t want to do a disservice to him, but there was a continual process of paring down the dialogue and simplifying the story, which continued long into the edit. Benicio Del Toro’s character says very little and that helps keep him very mysterious. One of the biggest cuts we made in the edit was to eliminate the original opening scene, shot on the coast at Veracruz. In it, Alejandro (Del Toro) is interrogating a cop by holding his head underwater. He goes too far and kills him.  So he drags the lifeless body to the shore only to resuscitate him and begin the interrogation again. A strong and brutal scene, but one that told too much about Alejandro at the outset, rather than letting us – and Kate (Emily Blunt) – figure him out piece by piece. We needed to tell the story through Kate’s eyes. The film now starts with the hostage rescue raid, which better anchors the film on Kate.  And it’s not short of its own brutality. At the end of the scene we smash cut from a mutilated hand on the ground to Kate washing the blood out of her hair in the shower. This very violent beginning lets the audience know that anything could happen in this film.”

A carefully considered production

Sicario was produced for an estimated $31 million. While not exactly low budget, it was certainly modest for a film of this ambition. The majority of the film was shot in New Mexico over a 49-day period, starting in July of 2014. Final post was completed in March of this year. Roger Deakins (Unbroken, Prisoners, Skyfall), the film’s director of photography, relied on his digital camera of choice these days, the ARRI Alexa XT recording to ARRIRAW. The editorial team cut with transcoded Avid DNxHD media using two Avid Media Composer systems.

df0416_sicario_4Joe Walker continues, “This was a very carefully considered shoot. They spent a lot of effort working out shots to avoid overshooting. Most of the set-ups were in the final cut. They were also lucky with the weather. I cut the initial assembly in LA while they were shooting in New Mexico. The fine cut was done in Montreal with Denis for ten weeks and then back to LA for the final post. The edit really came together easily because of all the prep. Roger has to be one of our generation’s greatest cinematographers. Not only are his shots fantastic, but he has a mastery of sequence building, which is matched by Denis.”

“Ninety percent of the time the editorial team consisted of just my long-time first assistant Javier [Marcheselli] and me. The main focus of the edit was to streamline the storytelling and to be as muscular and rhythmic with the cutting as possible. We spent a lot of time focused on the delicate balance between how much we see the story through our central character’s eyes and how much we should let the story progress by itself.  One of the constructs that came out of the edit was to beef up the idea of surveillance by taking helicopter aerials of the desert and creating drone footage from it.  Javier is great with temp visual effects and I’m good with sound, so we’d split up duties that way.”

df0416_sicario_8“I’m happy that this was largely a single-camera production. Only a few shots were two-camera shots. Single-camera has the advantage that the editor can better review the footage. With multi-cam you might get four hours of dailies, which takes about seven hours to review. When are you left with time to cut? This makes it hard to build a relationship with the dailies. With a single-camera film, you have more time to really investigate the coverage. I like to mind-read what the direction was by charting the different nuances between takes.”

It shouldn’t matter what the knives are

Walker is a long-time Media Composer user. We wrapped up with a discussion about the tools of the trade. Walker says, “This was a small film compared to some, so we used two Avid workstations connected to Avid’s ISIS shared storage while in LA. It’s rock solid. In Montreal, there was a different brand of shared storage, which wasn’t nearly as solid as ISIS. On Michael Mann’s Blackhat, we sometimes had sixteen Avids connected to ISIS, so that’s pretty hard to beat. I really haven’t used other NLEs, like Final Cut, but Premiere is tempting. If anything, going back to Lightworks is even more intriguing to me. I really loved how intuitive the ‘paddles’ (the Lightworks flatbed-style Controller) were. But edit systems are like knives. You shouldn’t care what knives the chef used if the meal tastes good. Given the right story, I’d be happy to cut it on wet string.”

df0416_sicario_2The editing application isn’t Walker’s only go-to tool. He continues, “I wish Avid would include more improvements on the audio side of Media Composer. I often go to outside applications. One of my favorites is [UISoftware’s] MetaSynth, which lets me extend music. For instance, if a chord is held for one second, I can use MetaSynth to extend that hold for as much as ten, twenty seconds. This makes it easy to tailor music under a scene and it sounds completely natural. I also used it on Sicario to elongate some great screaming sounds in the scene where Alejandro is having a nightmare on the plane – they are nicely embedded into the sounds of the jet engines – we wanted the message to be subliminal.”

df0416_sicario_5Joe Walker is a fan of visual organization. He explains, “When I’m working with dailies, I usually don’t pre-edit select sequences for a scene unless it’s a humongous amount of coverage. Instead, I prefer to visually arrange the ‘tiles’ (thumbnail frames in the bin) in a way that makes it easier to tuck in. But I am a big fan of the scene wall. I write out 3” x 5” note cards for each scene with a short description of the essence of that scene on it. This is a great way to quickly see what that scene is all about and remind you of a character’s journey up to that point. When it comes time to re-order scenes, it’s often better to do that by shifting the cards on the wall first. If you try to do it in the software, you get bogged down in the logistics of making those edit changes. I’ll put the cards for deleted scenes off to the side, so a quick glance reminds me of what we’ve removed. It’s just something that works for me.  Denis has just spent the best part of a year turning words into pictures so he laughs at my wall and my reliance on it!”

(It’s also worth checking out Steve Hullfish’s excellent interview with Walker at his Art of the Cut column.)

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2016 Oliver Peters

Steve Jobs

df0216_sj1_smIt’s challenging to condense the life of a complex individual into a two-hour-long film. So it’s no wonder that the filmmakers of Steve Jobs have earned both praise and criticism for their portrayal of the Apple co-founder. The real Steve Jobs generated differing emotions from those who knew him or those who viewed his life from the outside. To tackle that dilemma screenwriter Aaron Sorkin (Moneyball, The Social Network, Charlie Wilson’s War) and director Danny Boyle (127 Hours, Slumdog Millionaire, 28 Days Later) set out to create a “painting instead of a photograph”.

Steve Jobs with Michael Fassbender in the central role uses a classic Shakespearean three-act structure, focusing on three key product launches. Act 1 depicts the unveiling of the first Macintosh computer (1984); Act 2 is the introduction of the NeXT computer (1988); Act 3 is the reveal of the original iMac (1998). These three acts cover the narrative arc of Jobs’ rise, humiliation/revenge, and his ultimate return to prominence at Apple. All of the action takes place backstage at these launch events, but is intercut with flashbacks. The emotional thread that ties the three acts together is Jobs’ relationship with his daughter, Lisa Brennan-Jobs.

An action film of words

Aaron Sorkin’s scripts are known for their rapid fire dialogue and Steve Jobs is no exception. Clocking in at close to 190 script pages, the task of whittling that down to a two-hour movie fell to editor Elliot Graham (Milk, 21, Superman Returns). I recently spoke with Graham about how he connected with this project and some of the challenges the team faced. He explains, “I’ve been a fan of Danny’s and his regular editor wasn’t available to cut this film. So I reached out and met with them and I joined the team.”

Steve Jobs“When I read the script, I characterized it as an ‘action film of words.’ Early on we talked about the dialogue and the need to get to two hours. I’ve never talked about the film’s final length with a director at the start of the project, but we knew the information would come fast and we didn’t want the audience to feel pummeled. We needed to create a tide of energy from beginning to end that takes the viewer through this dialogue as these characters travel from room to room. It’s our responsibility to keep each entrance into a different room or hallway revelatory in some fashion – so that the viewer stays with the ideas and the language. Thank goodness we had sound recordist Lisa Pinero on hand – she really helped the cast stay true to the musicality of the writing. The script is full of intentional overlaps, and Danny didn’t want to stop them from happening. Lisa captured it so that I could edit it. We knew we wanted very little ADR in this film, so we let the actors play out the scene. That was pivotal in capturing Aaron’s language.”

“Each act is a little different, both in production design and in the format. [Director of photography] Alwin Küchler (Divergent, R.I.P.D., Hanna) filmed Act 1 on 16mm, Act 2 on 35mm, and Act 3 digitally with the ARRI Alexa. We also added visuals in the form of flashbacks and other intercutting to make it more cinematic. Danny would keep rolling past the normal end of a take and would get some great emotions from the actors that I could use elsewhere. Also when the audience arrives to take their seats at these launch events, Danny would record that, which gave us additional material to work with. In one scene with Jobs and Joanna Hoffman (Kate Winslet), Danny kept rolling on Kate after Michael left the room. In that moment we got an exquisite emotional performance from her that was never in the script. In another example, he got this great abstract close-up of Michael that we were able to use to intercut with the boardroom scene later. This really puts the audience into Steve’s head and is a pay-off for the revenge concept.”

Building structure

df0216_sj2Elliot Graham likes to make his initial cut tight and have a first presentation that’s reasonably finished. His first cut was approximately 147 minutes long compared with a final length of 117 minutes plus credits. He continues, “In the case of this film, cutting tight was beneficial, because we needed to know whether or not the pace would work. The good news is that this leaves you more time to experiment, because less time is spent in cutting it down for time. We needed to make sure the viewer would stay engaged, because the film is really three separate stories. To avoid the ‘stage play’ feeling and move from one act into the next, we added some interstitial visual elements to move between acts. In our experimenting and trimming, we opted to cut out part of the start of Act 2 and Act 3 and join the walking-talking dialogue ‘in progress.’ This becomes a bit of a montage, but it serves the purpose of quickly bringing the viewer along even though they might have to mentally fill in some of the gaps. That way it didn’t feel like Act 2 and Act 3 were the start of new films and kept the single narrative intact.”

“At the start, the only way to really ascertain the success of our efforts was to see Act 1, as close to screen-ready as we could come. So I put together an assemblage and Danny, the producers, and I viewed it. Not only did we want to see how it all worked together before moving on, we wanted to see that we had achieved the tone and quality we were after, because each act needed to feel completely different. And since Danny was shooting each piece a bit differently, I was cutting each one differently. For example, there’s a lot of energy, almost frenetic, to the camera movements in Act 1, plus it was shot on 16mm, so it gives it this cinema verité feel and harkens back to a less technically-savvy time. Act 2 has a more classical technique to it, so the cutting becomes a little slower in pacing. By getting a sense of what was working and maybe what wasn’t, it helped define how we were going to shoot the subsequent two acts and ensure we were creating an evolution for the character and the story. We would not have been able to do this if we had shot this film chronologically out of order, the way most features are.”

It’s common for a film’s scene structure to be re-arranged during the edit, but that’s harder to do with a film like Steve Jobs. There’s walking-talking dialogue that moves from one room to the next, which means the written script forces a certain linear progression. It’s a bit like the challenge faced in Birdman: Or (The Unexpected Virtue of Ignorance), except without the need to present the story as a continuous, single take. Graham says, “We did drop some scenes, but it was tricky, because you have to bridge the gap without people noticing. One of the scenes that was altered a lot from how it was written was the fight between John Scully (Jeff Daniels) and Steve Jobs (Michael Fassbender). This scene runs about eleven minutes and Danny and I felt it lost momentum. So we spent about 48 hours recutting the scene. Instead of following the script literally, we followed the change in emotion of the actors’ performances. This led to a better emotional climax, which made the scene work.”

From San Francisco to London

df0216_sj4Steve Jobs was shot in San Francisco from January to April of this year and then post shifted to London from April until October. The editorial team worked with two Avid Media Composers connected to Avid ISIS shared storage. The film elements were scanned and then all media transcoded to Avid DNxHD for the editing team. Graham explains, “From the standpoint of the edit, it didn’t matter whether it was shot on film or digitally – the different formats didn’t change our workflow. But it was still exciting to have part of this on film, because that’s so rare these days. Danny likes a very collaborative process, so Aaron and the producers were all involved in reviewing the cuts and providing their creative input. As a director, Danny is very involved with the edit. He’d go home and review all the dailies again on DVD just to make sure we weren’t missing anything. This wasn’t an effects-heavy film like a superhero film, yet there were still several hundred visual effects. These were mostly clean-ups, like make-up fixes, boom removals, but also composites, like wall projections.”

Various film editors have differing attitudes about how much sound they include in their cut. For Elliot Graham it’s an essential part of the process. He says, “I love working with sound and temp music, because it changes your perception and affects how you approach the cut. For Steve Jobs, music was a huge part of the process from the beginning. Unlike other films, we received a lot of pieces of music from Daniel Pemberton (composer, The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Cuban Fury, The Counselor) right at the start. He had composed a number of options based on his reading of the script. We tried different test pieces even before the shoot. Once some selections were made, Daniel gave us stems so that I could really tailor the music to the scene. This helped to define the flashbacks musically. The process was much more collaborative between the director and composer than on other films and it was a really unique way to work.”

Getting the emotion right

Elliot Graham joined the project after Michael Fassbender was signed to play Steve Jobs. Graham comments, “I’ve always thought Michael was a brilliant actor and I’d much rather have that to work with than someone who just looks like Jobs. Steve Wozniak (who is played by actor Seth Rogan in the film) watched the film several times and he commented that although the actual events were slightly different, the feeling behind what’s in the film was right. He’s said that to him, it was like seeing the real Steve.  So Michael was in some way capturing the essence of this guy.  I’m biased, of course, but Danny’s aim was to get the emotional approach right and I think he succeeded.”

“I’m a big Apple fan, so the whole process felt a bit strange – like I was in some sort of wonderful Charlie Kaufman wormhole. Here I was working on a Mac and using an iPhone to communicate while cutting a film about the first Mac and the person who so impacted the world through these innovations. I felt that by working on this film, I could understand Jobs just a little bit better. You get a sense of Jobs through his coming into contact with all of these people and his playing out whatever conflicts that existed. I think it’s more of a ‘why’ and ‘who’ story – rather than a point for point biography – why this person, whose impact on our lives is immeasurable, was the way he was. It’s my feeling that we were trying to look at his soul much more than track his life story.”

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetwork.

©2016 Oliver Peters

The On Camera Interview

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Many projects are based on first person accounts using the technique of the on camera interview. This approach is used in documentaries, news specials, corporate image presentations, training, commercials, and more. I’ve edited a lot of these, especially for commercials, where a satisfied customer might give a testimonial that gets cut into a five-ish minute piece for the web or a DVD and then various commercial lengths (:10, :15, :30, :60, 2 min.). The production approach and editing techniques are no different in this application than if you are working on a documentary.

The interviewer

The interview is going to be no better than the quality of the interviewer asking the off camera (and unheard) questions. Asking good questions in the right manner will yield successful results. Obviously the interviewer needs to be friendly enough to establish a rapport with the subject. People get nervous on camera, so the interviewer needs to get them relaxed. Then they can comfortably answer the questions and tell the story in their own words. The interviewer should structure the questions in a way that the totality of the responses tells a story. Think in terms of story arc and strive to elicit good beginning and ending statements.

df4115_iview_2Some key points to remember. First, make sure you get the person to rephrase the question as part of their answer, since the audience won’t hear the interviewer. This makes their answer a self-contained statement. Second, let them talk. Don’t interject or jump on the end of the answer, since this will make editing more difficult.

Sometimes in a commercial situation, you have a client or consultant on set, who wants to make sure the interviewee hits all the marketing copy points. Before you get started, you’ll need to have an understanding with the client that the interviewee’s answers will often have to be less than perfect. The interviewees aren’t experienced spokespersons. The more you press them to phrase the answer in the exact way that fits the marketing points or to correctly name a complex product or service in every response, the more stilted their speaking style will become. Remember, you are going for naturalness, honesty and emotion.

The basics

df4115_iview_1As you design the interview set, think of it as staging a portrait. Be mindful of the background, the lighting, and the framing. Depending on the subject matter, you may want a matching background. For example, a doctor’s interview might look best in a lab or in the medical office with complex surgical gear in the background. An interview with an average person is going to look more natural in a neutral environment, like their living room.

You will want to separate the interview subject from the background and this can be achieved through lighting, lens selection, and color scheme. For example, a blonde woman in a peach-colored dress will stand out quite nicely against a darker blue-green background. A lot of folks like the shallow depth-of-field and bokeh effect achieved by a full-frame Canon 5D camera with the right lens. This is a great look, but you can achieve it with most other cameras and lenses, too. In most cases, your video will be seen in the 16:9 HD format, so an off-center framing is desirable. If the person is looking camera left, then they should be on the right side of the frame. Looking camera right, then they should be on the left side.df4115_iview_7

Don’t forget something as basic as the type of chair they are sitting in. You don’t want a chair that rocks, rolls, leans back, or swivels. Some interviews take a long time and subjects that have a tendency to move around in a chair become very distracting – not to mention noisy – in the interview, if that chair moves with them. And of course, make sure the chair itself doesn’t creak.

Camera position

df4115_iview_3The most common interview design you see is where the subject is looking slightly off camera, as they are interacting with the interviewer who sitting to the left or the right of the camera. You do not want to instruct them to look into the camera lens while you are sitting next to the camera, because most people will dart between the interviewer and the camera when they try to attempt this. It’s unnatural.

The one caveat is that if the camera and interviewer are far enough away from the interview subject – and the interviewer is also the camera operator – then it will appear as if the interviewee is actually looking into the lens. That’s because the interviewer and the camera are so close to each other. When the subject addresses the interviewer, he or she appears to be looking at the lens when in fact the interviewee is really just looking at the interviewer.

df4115_iview_16If you want them looking straight into the lens, then one solution is to set up a system whereby the subject can naturally interact with the lens. This is the style documentarian Errol Morris has used in a rig that he dubbed the Interrotron. Essentially it’s a system of two teleprompters. The interviewer and subject can be in the same studio, although separated in distance – or even in other rooms. The two-way mirror of the teleprompter is projecting each person to the other. While looking directly at the interviewer in the teleprompter’s mirror, the interviewee is actually looking directly in the lens. This feels natural, because they are still looking right at the person.

Most producers won’t go to that length, and in fact the emotion of speaking directly to the audience, may or may not be appropriate for your piece. Whether you use Morris’ solution or not, the single camera approach makes it harder to avoid jump cuts. Morris actually embraces and uses these, however, most producers and editors prefer to cover these in some way. Covering the edit with a b-roll shot is a common solution, but another is to “punch in” on the frame, by blowing up the shot digitally by 15-30% at the cut. Now the cut looks like you used a tighter lens. This is where 4K resolution cameras come in handy if you are finishing in 2K or HD.

df4115_iview_6With the advent of lower-cost cameras, like the various DSLR models, it’s quite common to produce these interviews as two camera shoots. Cameras may be positioned to the left or the right of the interviewer, as well as on either side. There really is no right or wrong approach. I’ve done a few where the A-camera is right next to the interviewer, but the B-camera is almost 90-degrees to the side. I’ve even seen it where the B-camera exposes the whole set, including the crew, the other camera, and the lights. This gives the other angle almost a voyeuristic quality. When two cameras are used, each should have a different framing, so a cut between the cameras doesn’t look like a jump cut. The A-camera might have a medium framing including most of the person’s torso and head, while the B-camera’s framing might be a tight close-up of their face.

While it’s nice to have two matched cameras and lens sets, this is not essential. For example, if you end up with two totally mismatched cameras out of necessity – like an Alexa and a GoPro or a C300 and an iPhone – make the best of it. Do something radical with the B-camera to give your piece a mixed media feel. For example, your A-camera could have a nice grade to it, but the B-camera could be black-and-white with pronounced film grain. Sometimes you just have to embrace these differences and call it a style!

Coverage

df4115_iview_4When you are there to get an interview, be mindful to also get additional b-roll footage for cutaway shots that the editor can use. Tools of the trade, the environment, the interview subject at work, etc. Some interviews are conducted in a manner other than sitting down. For example, a cheesemaker might take you through the storage room and show off different rounds of cheese. Such walking-talking interviews might make up the complete interview or they might be simple pieces used to punctuate a sit-down interview. Remember, that if you have the time, get as much coverage as you can!

Audio and sync

It’s best to use two microphones on all interviews – a lavaliere on the person and a shotgun mic just out of the camera frame. I usually prefer the sound of the shotgun, because it’s more open; but depending on how noisy the environment is, the lav may be the better channel to use. Recording both is good protection. Not all cameras have great sound systems, so you might consider using an external audio recorder. Make sure you patch each mic into separate channels of the camera and/or external recorder, so that they are NOT summed.

df4115_iview_8Wherever you record, make sure all sources receive audio. It would be ideal to feed the same mics to all cameras and recorders, but that’s not always possible. In that case, make sure that each camera is at least using an onboard camera mic. The reason to do this is for sync. The two best ways to establish sync is common timecode and a slate with a clapstick. Ideally both. Absent either of those, then some editing applications (as well as a tool like PluralEyes) can analysis the audio waveform and automatically sync clips based on matching sound. Worst case, the editor can manually sync clips be marking common aural or visual cues.

Depending on the camera model, you may have media cards that don’t span and automatically start a new clip every 4GB (about every 12 minutes with some formats). The interviewer should be mindful of these limits. If possible, all cameras should be started together and re-slated at the beginning of each new clip.

Editing workflow

df4115_iview_13Most popular nonlinear editing applications (NLE) include great features that make editing on camera interviews reasonably easy. To end up with a solid five minute piece, you’ll probably need about an hour of recorded interview material (per camera angle). When you cut out the interviewer’s questions, the little bit of chit chat at the beginning, and then repeats or false starts that an interviewee may have, then you are generally left with about thirty minutes of useable responses. That’s a 6:1 ratio.

The goal as an editor is to be a storyteller by the soundbites you select and the order into which you arrange them. The goal is to have the subject seamlessly tell their story without the aide of an on camera host or voice-over narrator. To aid the editing process use NLE tools like favorites, markers, and notes, along with human tools like written transcripts and your own notes to keep the project organized.

This is the standard order of things for me:

Sync sources and create multi-cam sequences or multi-cam clips depending on the NLE.

Pass 1 – create a sequence with all clips synced up and organized into a single timeline.

Pass 2 – clean up the interview and remove all interviewer questions.

Pass 3 – whittle down the responses into a sequence of selected answers.

Pass 4 – rearrange the soundbites to best tell the story.

Pass 5 – cut between cameras if this is a multi-camera production.

Pass 6 – clean up the final order by editing out extra words, pauses, and verbal gaffs.

Pass 7 – color correct clips, mix audio, add b-roll shots.

df4115_iview_9As I go through this process, I am focused on creating a good “radio cut” first. In other words, how does the story sound if you aren’t watching the picture. Once I’m happy with this, I can worry about color correction, b-roll, etc. When building a piece that includes multiple interviewees, you’ll need to pay attention to several other factors. These include getting a good mix of diversity – ethnic, gender, job classification. You might want to check with the client first as to whether each and every person interviewed needs to be used in the video. Clearly some people are going to be duds, so it’s best to know up front whether or not you’ll need to go through the effort to find a passable soundbite in those cases or not.

There are other concerns when re-ordering clips among multiple people. Arranging the order of clips so that you can cut between alternating left and right-framed shots makes the cutting flow better. Some interviewees comes across better than others, however, make sure not to lean totally on these responses. When you get multiple, similar responses, pick the best one, but if possible spread around who you pick in order to get the widest mix of respondents. As you tell the story, pay attention to how one soundbite might naturally lead into another – or how one person’s statement can complete another’s thoughts. It’s those serendipitous moments that you are looking for in Pass 4. It’s what should take the most creative time in your edit.

Philosophy of the cut

df4115_iview_11In any interview, the editor is making editorial selections that alter reality. Some broadcasters have guidelines at to what is and isn’t permissible, due to ethical concerns. The most common editorial technique in play is the “Frankenbite”. That’s where an edit is made to truncate a statement or combine two statements into one. Usually this is done because the answer went off into a tangent and that portion isn’t relevant. By removing the extraneous material and creating the “Frankenbite” you are actually staying true to the intent of the answer. For me, that’s the key. As long as your edit is honest and doesn’t twist the intent of what was said, then I personally don’t have a problem with doing it. That part of the art in all of this.

df4115_iview_10It’s for these reasons, though, that directors like Morris leave the jump cuts in. This lets the audience know an edit was made. Personally, I’d rather see a smooth piece without jump cuts and that’s where a two camera shoot is helpful. Cutting between two camera angles can make the edit feel seamless, even though the person’s expression or body position might not truly match on both sides of the cut. As long as the inflection is right, the audience will accept it. Occasionally I’ll use a dissolve, white flash or blur dissolve between sections, but most of the time I stick with cuts. The transitions seem like a crutch to me, so I use them only when there is a complete change of thought that I can’t bridge with an appropriate soundbite or b-roll shot.

df4115_iview_12The toughest interview edit tends to be when you want to clean things up, like a repeated word, a stutter, or the inevitable “ums” and “ahs”. Fixing these by cutting between cameras normally results in a short camera cut back and forth. At this point, the editing becomes a distraction. Sometimes you can cheat these jump cuts by staying on the same camera angle and using a short dissolve or one of the morphing transitions offered by Avid, Adobe, or MotionVFX (for FCPX). These vary in their success depending on how much a person has moved their body and head or changed expressions at the edit point. If their position is largely unchanged, the morph can look flawless. The more the change, the more awkward the resulting transition can be. The alternative is to cover the edit with a cutaway b-roll shot, but that’s often not desirable if this happens the first time we see the person. Sometimes you just have to live with it and leave these imperfections alone.

Telling the story through sight and sound is what an editor does. Working with on camera interviews is often the closest an editor comes to being the writer, as well. But remember that mixing and matching soundbites can present nearly infinite possibilities. Don’t get caught in the trap so many do of never finishing. Bring it to a point where the story is well-told and then move on. If the entire production is approached with some of these thoughts in mind, the end result can indeed be memorable.

©2015 Oliver Peters

PDFviewer for Premiere Pro

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Small developers often create the coolest tools for editing. Such is the case with Primal Cuts and their PDFviewer extension for Premiere Pro CC. Ever find yourself shuffling between paper scripts and storyboards, while trying to edit? Or juggling between different apps on-screen to view electronic versions, while going back-and-forth to your NLE? That’s what PDFviewer solves for you.

df4015_pcpdf_3Adobe has created a feature called extensions, which allows a developer to create a custom, dockable panel to perform certain function right inside the application’s interface. TypeMonkey is one example of this for After Effects. The same interface feature is also available in Premiere Pro. Extensions developed for Adobe applications also have the benefit of being cross-platform compatible.

PDFviewer is an extension designed for Adobe Premiere Pro CC. Once installed, it’s accessible from the extensions pulldown menu. When you select it, PDFviewer opens as a floating interface panel that can then be docked anywhere in the interface. If you dock it, make sure to do so in all of your workspaces and save those configurations. That way, if you have a file open, it will stay open as you jump between different layouts.

df4015_pcpdf_2Any PDF file can be opened in PDFviewer, including scripts, storyboards, and other documents. If you work in scripted long-form productions, then check if the script supervisor is using ScriptE Systems products. These are ideal for generating numerous electronic versions of common filming documents, including shot logs and lined scripts. However, any PDF works, including manually scanned PDFs of handwritten reports and lined scripts. Simply open up the lined script in the PDFviewer panel and now you have it right there within Premiere Pro. It’s not exactly the same as Avid’s Script Integration tools in Media Composer, but it’s the next best thing to it.

df4015_pcpdf_4PDFviewer lets you open multiple PDFs by clicking the “+” icon and adding another file. Multiple PDFs are accessible as tabs across the top of the PDFviewer window. It also includes a “hand” tool to easily scroll and pan within larger documents. Search is another great feature, which is perfect for working with transcripts. Search terms will be highlighted throughout the document. You can also copy-and-paste text from within PDFviewer to any metadata field in Premiere Pro.

Primal Cuts’ PDFviewer is a straightforward tool that every Premiere Pro editor will find to be a handy addition to their toolkit. At $10, the price is hard to pass up, simply based on the convenience of not shuffling more paper on your desk.

©2015 Oliver Peters

Fear the Walking Dead

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When AMC cable network decided to amp up the zombie genre with The Walking Dead series, it resulted in a huge hit. Building upon that success, they’ve created a new series that could be viewed as a companion story, albeit without any overlapping characters. Fear the Walking Dead is a new, six-episode series that starts season one on August 23. The story takes place across the country in Los Angeles and chronologically just before the outbreak in the original series. The Walking Dead was based on Robert Kirkman’s graphic novels by the same name and he has been involved in both versions as executive producer.

Unlike the original series, which was shot on 16mm film, Fear the Walking Dead is being shot digitally with ARRI ALEXA cameras and anamorphic lenses. That’s in an effort to separate the two visual styles, while maintaining a cinematic quality to the new series. I recently spoke with Tad Dennis, the editor of two of the six episodes in season one, about the production.

Tad Dennis started his editing career as an assistant editor on reality TV shows. He says, “I started in reality TV and then got the bump-up to full-time editing (Extreme Makeover: Home Edition, America’s Next Top Model, The Voice). However, I realized my passion was elsewhere and made the shift to scripted television. I started there again as an assistant and then was bumped back up to editing (Fairly Legal, Manhattan, Parenthood). Both types of shows really do have a different workflow, so when I shifted to scripted TV, it was good to start back as an assistant. That let me be very grounded in the process.”

Creating a new show with a shared concept

Dennis started with these thoughts on the new show, “We think of this series as more of a companion show to the other and not necessarily a spin-off or prequel. The producers went with different cameras and lenses for a singular visual aesthetic, which affects the style. In trying to make it more ‘cinematic’, I tend linger on wider shots and make more selective use of tight facial close-ups. However, the material really has to dictate the cut.”

df3615_ftwd_3Three editors and three assistant editors work on the Fear the Walking Dead series, with each editor/assistant team cutting two of the six shows of season one. They are all working on Avid Media Composer systems connected to an Avid Isis shared storage solution. Scenes were shot in both Vancouver and in Los Angeles, but the editing teams were based in Los Angeles. ALEXA camera media was sent to Encore Vancouver and Encore Hollywood, depending on the shooting location. Encore staff synced sound and provided the editors with Avid DNxHD editorial media. The final color correction, conform, and finishing was also handled at Encore Hollywood.

Dennis described how post on this show differed from other network shows he’s worked on in the past. He says, “With this series, everything was shot and locked for the whole season by the first airdate. On other series, the first few shows will be locked, but then for the rest of the season, it’s a regular schedule of locking a new show each week until the end of the season. This first season was shot in two chunks for all six episodes – the Vancouver settings and then the Los Angeles scenes. We posted everything for the Vancouver scenes and left holes for the LA parts. The shows went all the way through director cuts, producer cuts, and network notes with these missing sections. Then when the LA portions came in, those scenes were edited and incorporated. This process was driven by the schedule. Although we didn’t have the pressure of a weekly airdate, the schedule was definitely tight.” Each of the editors had approximately three to four days to complete their cut of an episode after receiving the last footage. Then the directors got another four days for a director’s cut.

df3615_ftwd_5Often films and television shows go through adjustments as they move from script to actual production and ultimately the edit. Dennis feels this is more true of the first few shows in a new series than with an established series. He explains, “With a new series, you are still trying to establish the style. Often you’ll rethink things in the edit. As I went through the scenes, performances that were coming across as too ‘light’ had to be given more ‘weight’. In our story, the world is falling apart and we wanted every character to feel that all the way throughout the show. If a performance didn’t convey a sense of that, then I’d make changes in the takes used or mix takes, where picture might be better on one and audio better on the other.”

Structure and polish in post

In spite of the tight schedule, the editors still had to deal with a wealth of footage. Typical of most hour-long dramas, Fear the Walking Dead is shot with two or three cameras. For very specific moments, the director would have some of the footage shot on 48fps. In those cases, where cameras ran at different speeds, Dennis would treat these as separate clips. When cameras ran at the same speed (for example, at 24fps for sync sound), such as in dialogue scenes, Susan Vinci (assistant editor) would group the clips as multicam clips. He explains, “The director really determines the quality of the coverage. I’d often get really necessary options on both cameras that weren’t duplicated otherwise. So for these shows, it helped. Typically this meant three to four hours of raw footage each day. My routine is to first review the multicam clips in a split view. This gives me a sense of what the coverage is that I have for the scene. Then I’ll go back and review each take separately to judge performance.”

df3615_ftwd_4Dennis feels that sound is critical to his creative editing process. He continues, “Sound is very important to the world of Fear the Walking Dead. Certain characters have a soundscape that’s always associated with them and these decisions are all driven by editorial. The producers want to hear a rough cut that’s as close to airable as possible, so I spend a lot of time with sound design. Given the tight schedule on this show, I would hand off a lot of this to my long-time assistant, Susan. The sound design that we do in the edit becomes a template for our sound designer. He takes that, plus our spotting notes, and replaces, improves, and enhances the work we’ve done. The show’s music composer also supplied us with a temp library of past music he’d composed for other productions. We were able to use these as part of our template. Of course, he would provide the final score customized to the episode. This score would be based on our template, the feelings of the director, and of course the composer’s own input for what best suited each show.”

df3615_ftwd_2Dennis is an unabashed Avid Media Composer proponent. He says, “Over the past few years, the manufacturers have pushed to consolidate many tools from different applications. Avid has added a number of Pro Tools features into Media Composer and that’s been really good for editors. There are many tools I rely on, such as those audio tools. I use the Audiosuite and RTAS filters in all of my editing. I like dialogue to sound as it would in a live environment, so I’ll use the reverb filters. In some cases, I’ll pitch-shift audio a bit lower. Other tools I’ll use include speed-ramping and invisible split-screens, but the the trim tool is what defines the system for me. When I’m refining a cut, the trim tool is like playing a precise instrument, not just using a piece of software.”

Dennis offered these parting suggestions for young editors starting out. “If you want to work in film and television editing, learn Media Composer inside and out. The dominant tool might be Final Cut or Premiere Pro in some markets, but here in Hollywood, it’s largely Avid. Spend as much time as possible learning the system, because it’s the most in-demand tool for our craft.”

Originally written for Digital Video magazine / CreativePlanetNetwork

©2015 Oliver Peters

Automatic Duck Redux

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Automatic Duck invented timeline translations between applications. Necessity is the mother of invention, leading Wes Plate, an Avid Media Composer editor who tackled compositing in Adobe After Effects, to team with his programmer father, Harry. The goal was to design a tool to get Avid timelines into After Effects compositions. Automatic Duck grew from this beginning to create a series of translation products that let editors seamlessly move timelines between a number of different hosts, including Media Composer, Pro Tools, After Effects, and Apple Final Cut Pro “classic”.

Four years ago Adobe licensed the IP for the original Automatic Duck Pro Import products, as well as brought the father/son team on board to develop tools for Adobe. Now they are back on their own and have decided to reboot Automatic Duck, which has been mothballed for the past four years. Seeing an opportunity in Apple’s Final Cut Pro X, the company has developed Ximport AE, a timeline translation tool to bring Final Cut Pro X projects (edited sequences) into After Effects. The team is no stranger to Final Cut Pro X’s new FCPXML format, since it was the first developer to create a companion utility that translated Final Cut Pro X 10.0 projects into Pro Tools sessions.

Knowing the market

df3915_ad_2First, let’s define the market. Who is Automatic Duck Ximport AE for? Editors who do most of their heavy lifting in Media Composer, Final Cut, or Premiere Pro might not see the attraction. On the flip side, though, there are quite a few editors for whom After Effects is the tool of choice for all effects and even finishing. For this group, the NLE is where they spend the least amount of time. They use an editing application for shot selection and assembly and then go straight to After Effects for everything else.

If you are a motion graphics designer who relies on After Effects, then your occasional need for an NLE might be best served by FCP X. The interface is fast and easy to master, compared with more traditional track-based edit software. Finally, if you are a dedicated FCP X editor, you no longer have a “send to Motion” function as in the old Final Cut Studio. This means you can’t send more than a single shot to Motion for treatment. Besides, After Effects may still be your preferred motion graphics application. Take all of these points into consideration and you’ll see that there’s a clear need to get a project from FCP X into After Effects – the industry’s dominant motion graphics application.

How it works

df3915_ad_4Automatic Duck Ximport AE is designed as a plug-in that’s installed into After Effects, including CS6 up through the current CC2015 version (and beyond). There are several other competing translation tools on the market, which convert between flavors of XML or from FCPXML into AE Scripts. Automatic Duck is the only one that integrates directly into the After Effects import menu. Ximport AE cuts out one middle step in the process and should provide for a more complete translation from FCP X into After Effects.

I’ve been beta testing the product for a few months and it certainly hits the mark for serious users. The steps are simple. Just cut your sequence in Final Cut Pro X and then export an FCPXML for that project (sequence). When you open After Effects, select File > Import > Automatic Duck Ximport AE. This opens a dialogue box with a few settings and it’s where you navigate to the correct FCPXML file. Settings include whether to let your clips cascade up or down in the After Effects timeline, as well as an option to create pre-comps from Final Cut’s secondary storylines. The question mark icon also launches the user guide.

In the timelines I’ve tested, the translation is quite good. Compound clips are packaged as pre-comps. The active angle of Multicam clips and the selected pick of Audition clips are translated. Alternate angles aren’t.  Generally transform, crop, opacity, and blend functions are supported, as are audio and video keyframes. A number of third party filters are accurately translated between applications, assuming that the same filter is installed into each host. At launch, these include selected plug-ins from Boris FX, Digital Anarchy, Noise Industries/FxFactory, PHYX, Red Giant, and Yanobox. Check the user guide for a detailed list with specific filters.

Some caveats

df3915_ad_3It’s worth noting, however, that just about all of the built-in FCP X filters are not translated into an equivalent filter in After Effects. For example, the color board metadata is included in the FCPXML, but there’s no way to read that info on the After Effects side. This is true even when there are filters that appear to be the same. For example, both hosts include a native Gaussian blur filter, yet that doesn’t get translated. On the other hand, if you apply a Flipped filter in FCP X, it will be correctly translated into the -100 transform scale value in After Effects. So again, read the user guide and do a little experimentation to see what works and what doesn’t in your projects. Whenever an effect is not supported, a note is made in the companion HTML file created at import. A marker is also placed on that clip in the After Effects timeline, naming the missing plug-in.

df3915_ad_6I tested a number of supported third-party products, staying mainly within the Red Giant family. Translation was good between the Magic Bullet tools, but not without issue. For example, Universe ToonIt Expressionist Noise was available in both hosts, yet the effect was not applied in the After Effect composition. That’s because at the time I tested this using a beta build, that specific Universe filter had not been included. This has since been corrected. Other effects, like Looks, Colorista III, Mojo, Universe Glow, and others worked flawlessly. According to Wes Plate, the plug-in has been architected in a way to easily add support for new effects plug-ins. The bottom line is that if you stay within the supported features, you will get the richest translation experience from FCP X into After Effects that’s currently available in the market.

Automatic Duck Media Copy 4.0

df3915_ad_5Along with Ximport AE, the company will also introduce Automatic Duck Media Copy 4.0. The original Media Copy grew out the need to collect, copy, and move sequences and their associated media. The original version worked for Avid Media Composer and Apple Final Cut Pro “classic” sequences. It would read either the AAF or XML file and copy all associated media, plus the timeline edit info. This new folder could then be moved to another system for more editing or used as a back-up archive. Media Copy 4.0 has been updated to add FCPXML support. As before, it collects media and timeline files for use elsewhere. It does not trim or transcode the media, but you have the choice to copy media all into a single folder or to maintain a folder hierarchy matching the original paths within the newly created location. Media Copy works well as a standalone application or as a companion to Ximport AE. It supports Avid Media Composer, Final Cut Pro X, and Final Cut Pro 6/7.

With the reboot of Automatic Duck, they’ve decided to partner with Red Giant Software to provide marketing, sales, and customer support. Red Giant will offer Automatic Duck Ximport AE for $199 and Media Copy 4.0 for $99. If you still have need for Automatic Duck’s legacy products, the company is posting them again on their own website for free, with an optional “donate” button. These include Pro Import FCP, Pro Export FCP (for FCP 7 users), and Pro Import AE (for importing AAF and XML into AE CS 5.5 or earlier).

Regardless of which NLE you use, I’ve found Media Copy to be an essential tool, whether or not you work with effects or motion graphics. It’s great to see Automatic Duck update it, as well as launch their next great product, Ximport AE. Adobe After Effects will continue to be the ubiquitous compositing and motion graphics choice for most editors, so this marriage between Final Cut Pro X and After Effects make great sense.

For more, here’s a good interview with Wes Plate at Red Shark News.

©2015 Oliver Peters