January 2021 Links

Occasionally I write articles for other sites, which I don’t repost here or which I may repost much later at a future date. In case you missed them, here are links to some of the more recent ones.

My thoughts on how the Apple silicon transition affects post production professionals.
Is Apple Silicon Your Fork in the Road? by Oliver Peters – ProVideo Coalition

A review of the first M1-powered desktop Mac.
Apple M1 Mac mini Review by Oliver Peters (fcp.co)

The experience of putting together a virtual holiday show.
Holiday Cabaret de Noël – Virtual Show Production in Final Cut Pro (fcp.co)

Working with the Simon Says Transcription service.
Oliver Peters Reviews Simon Says Transcription Service (fcp.co)

Check out my conversation with Kirk Baxter about cutting the Netflix film, Mank.
Kirk Baxter Talks Editing Workflow on David Fincher’s Mank – postPerspective

Pointers about mobile filmmaking with iPhone and Final Cut Pro.
Mobile Filmmaking with iPhone, FiLMiC Pro, and Final Cut Pro (fcp.co)

Project organization

Leading into the new year, it’s time to take a fresh look at a perennial subject. Whether you work as a solo editor or part of a team, having a plan for organizing your projects – along with a workflow for moving media though your system – will lead to success in being able to find and restore material when needed at a future date. For a day-to-day workflow, I rely on five standard applications: Post Haste, Hedge, Better Rename, DiskCatalogMaker, and Kyno. I work on Macs, but there are Windows versions or alternatives for each.

Proper project organization. Regardless of your NLE, it’s a good idea to create a project “silo” for each job on your hard drive, RAID, or networked storage (NAS). That’s a main folder for the job, with subfolders for the edit project files, footage, audio, graphics, documents, exports, etc. I use Post Haste to create a new set of project folders for each new project.

Post Haste uses default or custom templates that can include Adobe project files. This provides a common starting point for each new project based on a template that I’ve created. Using this template, Post Haste generates a new project folder with common subfolders. A template Premiere Pro project file with my custom bin structure is contained within the Post Haste template. When each new set of folders is created, this Premiere file is also copied.

In order to track productions, each job is assigned a number, which becomes part of the name structure assigned within Post Haste. The same name is applied to the Premiere Pro project file. Typically, the master folder (and Premiere project) for a new job created through Post Haste will be labelled according to this schema: 9999_CLIENT_PROJECT_DATE.

Dealing with source footage, aka rushes or dailies. The first thing you have to deal with on a new project is the source media. Most of the location shoots for my projects come back to me with around 1TB of media for a day’s worth of filming. That’s often from two or three cameras, recorded in a variety of codecs at 4K/UHD resolution and 23.98fps. Someone on location (DIT, producer, DP, other) has copied the camera cards to working SSDs, which will be reused on later productions. Hedge is used to copy the cards, in order to provide checksum copy verification.

I receive those SSDs and not the camera cards. The first step is to copy that media “as is” into the source footage subfolder for that project on the editing RAID or NAS. Once my copy is complete, those same SSDs are separately copied “as is” via Hedge to one or more Western Digital or Seagate portable drives. Theoretically, this is for a deep archive, which hopefully will never be needed. Once we have at least two copies of the media, these working SSDs can be reformatted for the next production. The back-up drives should be stored in a safe location on-premises or better yet, offsite.

Since video cameras don’t use a standard folder structure on the cards, the next step is to reorganize the copied media in the footage folder according to date, camera, and roll. This means ripping media files out of their various camera subfolders. Within the footage folder, my subfolder hierarchy becomes shoot date (MMDDYY), then camera (A-CAM, B-CAM, etc), and then camera roll (A001, A002, etc). Media is located within the roll subfolder. Double-system audio recordings go into a SOUND folder for that date and follow this same hierarchy for sound rolls. When this reorganization is complete, I delete the leftover camera subfolders, such as Private, DCIM, etc.

It may be necessary to rename or append prefixes to file names in order to end up with completely unique file names within this project. That’s where Better Rename comes in. This is a Finder-level batch renaming tool. If a camera generates default names on a card, such as IMG_001, IMG_002 and so on, then renaming becomes essential. I try to preserve the original name in order to be able to trace the file back to back-up drives if I absolutely have to. Therefore, it’s best to append a prefix. I base this on project, date, camera, and roll. As an example, if IMG_001 was shot as part of the Bahamas project on December 20th, recorded by E-camera on roll seven, then the appended file would be named BAH1220E07_IMG_001.

Some camera codecs, like those used by drones and GoPros, are a beast for many NLEs to deal with. Proxy media is one way or you can transcode only the offending files. If you choose to transcode these files, then Compressor, Adobe Media Encoder, or Resolve are the best go-to applications. Transcode at the native file size and resolution into an optimized codec, like ProRes. Maintain log color spaces, because these optimized files become the new “camera” files in your edit. I will add separate folders for ORIG (camera original media) and PRORES (my transcoded, optimized files) within each camera roll folder. Only the ProRes media is to be imported into the NLE for editing.

Back-up! Do not proceed to GO! Now that you’ve spent all of this effort reorganizing, renaming, and transcoding media, you first want a back-up the files before starting to edit. I like to back up media to raw, removable, enterprise-grade HGST or Seagate hard drives. Over the years, I’ve accumulated a variety of drive sizes ranging from 2TB to now 8TB. Larger capacities are available, but 8TB is a cost-effective and manageable capacity. When placed into a Thunderbolt or USB drive dock, these function like any other local hard drive. 

When you’ve completed dealing with the media from the shoot, simply copy the whole job folder to a drive. You can store multiple projects on the same drive, depending on their capacity. This is an easy overnight process with most jobs, so it won’t impact your edit time. The point is to back up the newly organized version of your raw media. Once completed, you will have three copies of the source footage – the “as is” copy, the version on your RAID or NAS, and this back-up on the raw drive. After the project has been completed and delivered, load up the back-up drive and copy everything else from this job to that drive. This provides a “clone” of the complete job on both your RAID/NAS and the back-up drive.

In order to keep these back-up drives straight, you’ll need a catalog. At home, I’ve accumulated 12 drives thus far. At work we’ve accumulated over 200. I’ve found the easiest way to deal with this is an application called DiskCatalogMaker. It scans the drive and stores the file information in a catalog document. Each drive entry mimics what you see in the Finder, including folders, files, sizes, dates, and so on. The catalog document is searchable, which is why job numbers become important. It’s a good idea to periodically mount and spin up these drives to maintain reliability. Once a year is a minimum.

If you have sufficient capacity on your RAID or NAS, then you don’t want to immediately delete jobs and media when the work is done. In our case, once a job has been fully backed up, the job folder is moved into a BACKED UP folder on the NAS. This way we know when a job has been backed up, yet it is still easily retrieved should the client come back with revisions. Plus, you still have three total copies of the source media.

Other back-ups. I’ve talked a lot about backing up camera media, but what about other files? Generally files like graphics are supplied, so these are also backed up elsewhere. Plus they will get backed up on the raw drive when the job is done.

I also use Dropbox for interim back-ups of project files. Since a Premiere Pro project file is light and doesn’t carry media, it’s easy to back up in the cloud. At work, at the end of each day, each editor copies in-progress Premiere files to a company Dropbox folder. The idea is that in the event of some catastrophe, you could get your project back from Dropbox and then use the backed up camera drives to rebuild an edit. In addition, we also export and copy Resolve projects to Dropbox, as well as the DiskCatalogMaker catalog documents.

Whenever possible, audio stems and textless masters are exported for each completed job. These are stored with the final masters. Often it’s easier to make revisions using these elements, than to dive back into a complex job after it’s been deeply archived. Our NAS contains a separate top-level folder for all finished masters, in addition to the master subfolder within each project. When a production is done, the master file is copied into this other folder, resulting in two sets of the master files on the NAS. And by “master” I generally mean a final ProRes file along with a high-quality MP4 file. The MP4 is most often what the client will use as their “master,” since so much of our work these days is for the web. Therefore, both NAS locations hold a ProRes and an MP4. That’s in addition to the masters stored on the raw, back-up drive.

Final, Final revised, no really, this one is Final. Let’s address file naming conventions. Every editor knows the “danger” of calling something Final. Clients love to make changes until they no longer can. I work on projects that have running changes as adjustments are made for use in new presentations. Calling any of these “Final” never works. Broadcast commercials are usually assigned definitive ISCI codes, but that’s rarely the case with non-broadcast projects. The process that works for us is simply to use version numbers and dates. This makes sense and is what software developers use.

We use this convention: CLIENT_PROJECTNAME_VERSION_DATE_MODIFIER. As an example, if you are editing a McDonald’s Big Mac :60 commercial, then a final version might be labelled “MCD_Big Mac 60_v13_122620.” A slight change on that same day would become “MCD_Big Mac 60_v14_122620.” We use the “modifier” to designate variations from the norm. Our default master files are formatted as 1080p at 23.98 with stereo audio. So a variation exported as 4K/UHD or 720p or with a 5.1 surround mix would have the added suffix of “_4K” or “_720p” or “_51MIX.”

Some projects go through many updates and it’s often hard to know when a client (working remotely) considers a version truly done. They are supposed to tell you that, but they often just don’t. You sort of know, because the changes stop coming and a presentation deadline has been met. Whenever that happens, we export a ProRes master file plus high-quality MP4 files. The client may come back a week later with some revisions. Then, new ProRes and MP4 files are generated. Since version numbers are maintained, the ProRes master files will also have different version numbers and dates and, therefore, you can differentiate one from the other. Both variations may be valid and in use by the client.

Asset management. The last piece of software that comes in handy for us is Kyno. This is a lightweight asset management tool that we use to scan and find media on our NAS. Our method of organization makes it relatively easy to find things just by working in the Finder. However, if you are looking for that one piece of footage and need to be able to identify it visually, then that’s where Kyno is helpful. It’s like Adobe Bridge on steroids. One can organize and sort using the usual database tools, but it also has a very cool “drill down” feature. If you want to browse media within a folder without stepping through a series of subfolders, simply enable “drill down” and you can directly browse all media that’s contained therein. Kyno also features robust transcode and “send to” features designed with NLEs in mind. Prep media for an edit or create proxies? Simply use Kyno as an alternative to other options.

Hopefully this recap has provided some new workflow pointers for 2021. Good luck!

©2021 Oliver Peters

Avid’s Hidden Gems

Avid Media Composer offers a few add-on options, but two are considered gems by the editors that rely on them. ScriptSync and PhraseFind are essential for many drama and documentary editors who wield Media Composer keyboards every day. I’ve written about these tools in the past, including how you can get similar functionality in other NLEs. New transcription services, like Simon Says, make them more viable than ever for the average editor.

Driven by the script

Avid’s script-based editing, also called script integration, builds a representation of the script supervisor’s lined script directly into the Avid Media Composer workflow and interface. While often referred to as ScriptSync, Avid’s script integration is actually not the same. Script-based editing and script bins are part of the core Media Composer system and does not cost extra.

The concept originated with the Cinedco Ediflex NLE and migrated to Avid. In the regular Media Composer system, preparing a script bin and aligning takes to that script is a manual process, often performed by assistant editors that are part of a larger editorial team. Because it is labor-intensive, most individual editors working on projects that aren’t major feature films or TV series avoid using this workflow.

Avid ScriptSync (a paid option) automates this script bin preparation process, by automatically aligning spoken words in a take to the text lines within the written script. It does this using speech recognition technology licensed from Nexidia. This technology is based on phonemes, the sounds that are combined to create spoken words. Clips can be imported (transcoded into Avid MediaFiles) or linked.

Through automatic analysis of the audio within a take, ScriptSync can correlate a line in the script to its relative position within that take or within multiple takes. Once clips have been properly aligned to the written dialogue, ScriptSync is largely out of the picture. And so, in Avid’s script-based editing, the editor can then click on a line of dialogue within the script bin and see all of the coverage for that line.

Script integration with non-scripted content

You might think, “Great, but I’m not cutting TV shows and films with a script.” If you work in documentaries or corporate videos built around lengthy interviews, then script integration may have little meaning – unless you have transcripts. Getting long interviews transcribed can be costly and/or time-consuming.  That’s where an automated transcription service like Simon Says comes in. There are certainly other, equally good services. However, Simon Says, offers export options tailored for each NLE, including Avid Media Composer.

With a transcription available on a fast turnaround, it becomes easy to import an interview transcript into a Media Composer script bin and align clips to it. ScriptSync takes care of the automatic alignment making script-based editing quick, easy, and painless – even for an individual editor without any assistants.

Finding that needle in the haystack

The second gem is PhraseFind, which builds upon the same Nexidia speech recognition technology. It’s a tool that’s even more essential for the documentary editor than script integration. PhraseFind (a paid option) is a phonetic search tool that analyzes the audio for clips within an Avid MediaFiles folder. Type in a word or phrase and PhraseFind will return a number of “hits” with varying degrees of accuracy.

The search is based on phonemes, so the results are based on words that “sound like” the search term. On one side this means that low-accuracy results may include unrelated finds that sound similar. On the other hand, you can enter a search word that is spelled differently or inaccurately, but as long as it still sounds the same, then useful results will be returned.

PhraseFind is very helpful in editing “Frankenbites.” Those are edits were sentences are ended in the middle, because a speaker went off on a tangent, or when different phrases are combined to complete a thought. Often you need to find a word that matches your edit point, but with the correct inflection, such as ending a sentence. PhraseFind is great for these types of searches, since your only alternative is scouring through multiple clips in search of a single word.

Working with the options

Script-based editing, ScriptSync, and PhraseFind are unique features that are only available in Avid Media Composer. No other NLE offers similar built-in features. Boris FX does offer Soundbite, which is a standalone equivalent to the PhraseFind technology licensed to them by Nexidia. It’s still available, but not actively promoted nor developed. Adobe had offered Story as a way to integrate script-based editing into Premiere Pro. That feature is no longer available. So today, if you want the accepted standard for script and phonetic editing features, then Media Composer is where it’s at.

These are separate add-on options. You can pick one or the other or both (or neither) depending on your needs and style of work. They are activated through Avid Link. If you own multiple seats of Media Composer, then you can purchase one license of ScriptSync and/or PhraseFind and float them between Media Composers via Avid Link activation. While these tools aren’t for everyone, they do offer a new component to how you work as an editor. Many who’ve adopted them have never looked back.

©2020, 2021 Oliver Peters

Stocking Stuffers 2020

The end of the year is often  a good time to enhance your edit system with goodies. There are many cyber deals, plus the workload briefly slows enough to evaluate any changes that you need to make with your system. While not necessarily holiday specials, here are a few tools that caught my eye – or that I use regularly – and are worth checking out.

Boris FX Particle Illusion. This has been a component of the Continuum suite, but last summer Boris FX made Particle Illusion available as a free, standalone application for Mac and Windows systems. It’s a real-time, GPU-based, particle generator that comes with an emitter library of thousands of presets. These include a wide range of styles, including sci-fi effects, lightning, fireworks, sparkles, data streams, HUDs, and a ton more. Particle Illusion comes with its own layer-based composition window and timeline. Preset effects can be combined and modified to create unique effects, which may be exported as key-able elements. For example, I recently used it to create snowfall and snowflake animations in a virtual holiday performance video.

Yanobox Storm. Need some really cool animated backgrounds? Yanobox to the rescue with its new Storm generator. It’s available through the FxFactory platform for Final Cut Pro, Motion, Premiere Pro, and After Effects on Intel Macs. Like Particle Illusion, Storm features over 200 animated 3D presets and templates, including fire, organic fluid effects, fractals, and much more. Parameters are easily adjusted and performance is good even on older Macs. Storm is built around a self-contained rendering engine with beautiful shading, geometry, reflections, fractions, etc.

Color Finale LUTs. You’ve bought a bunch of LUTs, because you like the cool looks they offer. But it’s hard to deal with them across various LUT libraries and NLEs. The folks at Color Trix (makers of the Color Finale 2 grading solution for Final Cut Pro), have introduced Color Final LUTs. This is a standalone LUT management tool for the Mac. You can add and browse LUT collections within a single solution. The look of that LUT can be previewed using a default image or any reference images that’s you’ve added to the application. These can be manually added or via access to your Photos library. Color Finale LUTs integrates with Final Cut Pro, Premiere Pro, and DaVinci Resolve. Simply select the LUTs, designate the target NLE, and Color Finale LUTs will handle copying those LUTs into the proper folders.

BounceColor.  Speaking of LUTs, here’s a collection I recently became aware of. BounceColor offers a collection of creative and technical LUTs for a range of host applications in many looks and styles. Aside from the standard types of LUTs, BounceColor also offers cross-conversion LUTs. These include the usual camera log format to Rec 709, but also Blackmagic to ARRI Log-C. Finally, the BounceColor collections also include display LUTs, which are useful on location.

iZotope Holiday Bundle. Let’s not forget audio! All of the various audio filter plug-in developers offer cyber deals. Some, like Waves, seem to have perennial discounts on selected items. I’m a fan of iZotope’s products and have written about their tools, like Ozone and RX, in the past. Right now they are offering a Holiday Bundle, which is a collection of the Elements (“lite”) versions of four of their major bundles (Ozone, Nectar, Neutron, RX), plus some extras. Some of this won’t be useful for a video editor. The extras fall into what I would call “flash and trash” effects. Nectar can be useful for voice-overs, but Neutron is mainly geared around music instruments, not full mixes. However, editors will find that the RX effects (audio repair and clean-up), along with Ozone (mastering), may quickly because go-to items. Ozone Elements only includes three modules (EQ, imager, and maximizer), which is largely what you need on your master bus for some final mastering sweetness. Even though you might only use a few of the items in the bundle, the current price is still less than two of these products on their own, even at a discount. If the bundle is to your liking, I recommend going through an audio dealer, like Sweetwater, for a better online purchasing experience.

Enjoy!

©2020 Oliver Peters

CineMatch from FilmConvert

One of the many color correction challenges is matching dissimilar cameras used within the same production. This tends to be the case in many web, streaming, and non-scripted projects, where budgets and availability often dictate the mix of cameras to be used. I frequently end up with RED, ARRI, Panasonic, Sony, DJI, and GoPro cameras all in the same show. Most NLEs do include basic, albeit imperfect, shot-matching features. However, now several software developers are taking that challenge head on.

One such developer is New Zealand’s FilmConvert, developers of the FilmConvert Nitrate film emulation plug-in. Their newest product is CineMatch, a camera-matching plug-in that’s currently available for DaVinci Resolve and Premiere Pro – and coming to Final Cut Pro X in the future. As with Nitrate, CineMatch is a cross-platform plug-in that may be purchased for a specific NLE host or as a bundle license to cover all products.

The CineMatch concept is very straightforward. Most productions have a main or “hero” camera – typically designated as the A-camera. Then there are other cameras for cutaways and alternate angles – B-camera, C-camera, etc. The principle is to match the look of the B- and C-cameras to that of the A-camera.

Dealing with color science

Each camera manufacturer uses different color science for their products. Sony will have a distinctly different look from Canon or Panasonic. FilmConvert builds its plug-ins based on camera packs, which are each customized for a specific manufacturer and model in order to properly match that camera’s color science.

If you have a production that mixes a Sony FX9, an ARRI Amira, and a Panasonic GH5, then each uses a different camera pack. CineMatch is designed to work with Log/RAW/BRAW formats, so there are fewer packs available on the CineMatch site than on the Nitrate site. That’s because many of the prosumer cameras supported by Nitrate do not record in log and, therefore, wouldn’t be appropriate for CineMatch. Since CineMatch uses fewer camera packs, all currently-supported camera packs are included in the installer at this point in time.

The basics of matching

To start, disable any embedded LUT or remove any that you may have added. Next, apply the CineMatch effect to the clips on the timeline in Premiere Pro or as nodes in Resolve. On A-camera clips, set the appropriate source camera profile, but no target profile. For B-cams, C-cams, and other clips, set their source camera profile; however, set their target profile to match the A-camera source.

In a situation with an ALEXA A-cam and a Panasonic EVA1 as the B-cam, the ALEXA would only use the ALEXA source profile. The EVA1 would be set to the EVA1 source, but ALEXA as the target profile. Essentially you are moving all cameras into a color space matching the ARRI ALEXA Log-C color science.

To properly view the CineMatch output, apply the REC 709 transform. However, since CineMatch has converted all of these clips into a common log space, such as ARRI’s Log-C, you can also opt to leave this transform off within the clip filter and apply a conversion LUT at a different point, such as in an adjustment layer in Premiere Pro or as a timeline grading node in Resolve. This way, CineMatch is not limited to REC 709/SDR projects.

Additional color correction tools

Ideally the camera crew should have maintained proper and consistent exposure and white balance among cameras used on a common set-up. Even better if color charts have also been recorded at the start. In a perfect world, you’d now be done. Unfortunately, that’s never the case. You’ve unified the color space, but this doesn’t automatically match one clip to the next. CineMatch includes a comprehensive color correction toolkit to further match and adjust clips. There are white balance and exposure controls for quick adjustments.

If you use the split screen comparison view in Premiere Pro or Resolve, CineMatch HSL curves can be used to refine the match between source and target clips. As with Nitrate, there’s a full set of secondary color controls, including wheels, curves, and levels. Not only can you better match cameras to each other, but you can also use CineMatch to cover most basic grading needs without ever touching Resolve’s grading controls or Premiere’s Lumetri panel.

Working with CineMatch

Although this plug-in is marketed for camera matching, you can use it completely apart from that task. That’s primarily because of the camera packs. For example, when you film with a Panasonic GH5 in a log profile, no NLE offers a stock LUT that is correct for that camera. Generally you end up just correcting it without a LUT or applying a generic Panasonic V-Log LUT. That was designed for the Varicam’s color science and is not a perfect match for every other Panasonic camera. Close, but not spot-on. CineMatch lets you apply a correction that is tailor-made for each individual camera profile, thanks to FilmConvert’s development of a wide range of professional and prosumer camera packs.

The second advantage is that you can impart the look of other cameras. For example, I’m a fan of ARRI’s color science and really prefer the look of an ALEXA over most other cameras. I can apply CineMatch to a GH5 clip, set the source profile to GH5 and the target to ALEXA and impart a bit of that ARRI color to the GH5 clip. While it’s not a replacement for shooting with an ALEXA and the color conversion might not be absolutely perfect, it’s a nice adjustment that gives me a better image than working with that clip on its own.

Finally, if you own both CineMatch and FilmConvert Nitrate, it is possible to use the two in conjunction with each other. Just be very careful of the processes and their order. In the GH5/ALEXA example, make the profile conversion in CineMatch. Make no color adjustments there and don’t apply the REC 709 transform. Then add FilmConvert Nitrate, set its profile to the ARRI settings and make your film emulation and color adjustments to taste.

Original written for ProVideo Coalition.

©2020 Oliver Peters