January 2021 Links

Occasionally I write articles for other sites, which I don’t repost here or which I may repost much later at a future date. In case you missed them, here are links to some of the more recent ones.

My thoughts on how the Apple silicon transition affects post production professionals.
Is Apple Silicon Your Fork in the Road? by Oliver Peters – ProVideo Coalition

A review of the first M1-powered desktop Mac.
Apple M1 Mac mini Review by Oliver Peters (fcp.co)

The experience of putting together a virtual holiday show.
Holiday Cabaret de Noël – Virtual Show Production in Final Cut Pro (fcp.co)

Working with the Simon Says Transcription service.
Oliver Peters Reviews Simon Says Transcription Service (fcp.co)

Check out my conversation with Kirk Baxter about cutting the Netflix film, Mank.
Kirk Baxter Talks Editing Workflow on David Fincher’s Mank – postPerspective

Pointers about mobile filmmaking with iPhone and Final Cut Pro.
Mobile Filmmaking with iPhone, FiLMiC Pro, and Final Cut Pro (fcp.co)

Project organization

Leading into the new year, it’s time to take a fresh look at a perennial subject. Whether you work as a solo editor or part of a team, having a plan for organizing your projects – along with a workflow for moving media though your system – will lead to success in being able to find and restore material when needed at a future date. For a day-to-day workflow, I rely on five standard applications: Post Haste, Hedge, Better Rename, DiskCatalogMaker, and Kyno. I work on Macs, but there are Windows versions or alternatives for each.

Proper project organization. Regardless of your NLE, it’s a good idea to create a project “silo” for each job on your hard drive, RAID, or networked storage (NAS). That’s a main folder for the job, with subfolders for the edit project files, footage, audio, graphics, documents, exports, etc. I use Post Haste to create a new set of project folders for each new project.

Post Haste uses default or custom templates that can include Adobe project files. This provides a common starting point for each new project based on a template that I’ve created. Using this template, Post Haste generates a new project folder with common subfolders. A template Premiere Pro project file with my custom bin structure is contained within the Post Haste template. When each new set of folders is created, this Premiere file is also copied.

In order to track productions, each job is assigned a number, which becomes part of the name structure assigned within Post Haste. The same name is applied to the Premiere Pro project file. Typically, the master folder (and Premiere project) for a new job created through Post Haste will be labelled according to this schema: 9999_CLIENT_PROJECT_DATE.

Dealing with source footage, aka rushes or dailies. The first thing you have to deal with on a new project is the source media. Most of the location shoots for my projects come back to me with around 1TB of media for a day’s worth of filming. That’s often from two or three cameras, recorded in a variety of codecs at 4K/UHD resolution and 23.98fps. Someone on location (DIT, producer, DP, other) has copied the camera cards to working SSDs, which will be reused on later productions. Hedge is used to copy the cards, in order to provide checksum copy verification.

I receive those SSDs and not the camera cards. The first step is to copy that media “as is” into the source footage subfolder for that project on the editing RAID or NAS. Once my copy is complete, those same SSDs are separately copied “as is” via Hedge to one or more Western Digital or Seagate portable drives. Theoretically, this is for a deep archive, which hopefully will never be needed. Once we have at least two copies of the media, these working SSDs can be reformatted for the next production. The back-up drives should be stored in a safe location on-premises or better yet, offsite.

Since video cameras don’t use a standard folder structure on the cards, the next step is to reorganize the copied media in the footage folder according to date, camera, and roll. This means ripping media files out of their various camera subfolders. Within the footage folder, my subfolder hierarchy becomes shoot date (MMDDYY), then camera (A-CAM, B-CAM, etc), and then camera roll (A001, A002, etc). Media is located within the roll subfolder. Double-system audio recordings go into a SOUND folder for that date and follow this same hierarchy for sound rolls. When this reorganization is complete, I delete the leftover camera subfolders, such as Private, DCIM, etc.

It may be necessary to rename or append prefixes to file names in order to end up with completely unique file names within this project. That’s where Better Rename comes in. This is a Finder-level batch renaming tool. If a camera generates default names on a card, such as IMG_001, IMG_002 and so on, then renaming becomes essential. I try to preserve the original name in order to be able to trace the file back to back-up drives if I absolutely have to. Therefore, it’s best to append a prefix. I base this on project, date, camera, and roll. As an example, if IMG_001 was shot as part of the Bahamas project on December 20th, recorded by E-camera on roll seven, then the appended file would be named BAH1220E07_IMG_001.

Some camera codecs, like those used by drones and GoPros, are a beast for many NLEs to deal with. Proxy media is one way or you can transcode only the offending files. If you choose to transcode these files, then Compressor, Adobe Media Encoder, or Resolve are the best go-to applications. Transcode at the native file size and resolution into an optimized codec, like ProRes. Maintain log color spaces, because these optimized files become the new “camera” files in your edit. I will add separate folders for ORIG (camera original media) and PRORES (my transcoded, optimized files) within each camera roll folder. Only the ProRes media is to be imported into the NLE for editing.

Back-up! Do not proceed to GO! Now that you’ve spent all of this effort reorganizing, renaming, and transcoding media, you first want a back-up the files before starting to edit. I like to back up media to raw, removable, enterprise-grade HGST or Seagate hard drives. Over the years, I’ve accumulated a variety of drive sizes ranging from 2TB to now 8TB. Larger capacities are available, but 8TB is a cost-effective and manageable capacity. When placed into a Thunderbolt or USB drive dock, these function like any other local hard drive. 

When you’ve completed dealing with the media from the shoot, simply copy the whole job folder to a drive. You can store multiple projects on the same drive, depending on their capacity. This is an easy overnight process with most jobs, so it won’t impact your edit time. The point is to back up the newly organized version of your raw media. Once completed, you will have three copies of the source footage – the “as is” copy, the version on your RAID or NAS, and this back-up on the raw drive. After the project has been completed and delivered, load up the back-up drive and copy everything else from this job to that drive. This provides a “clone” of the complete job on both your RAID/NAS and the back-up drive.

In order to keep these back-up drives straight, you’ll need a catalog. At home, I’ve accumulated 12 drives thus far. At work we’ve accumulated over 200. I’ve found the easiest way to deal with this is an application called DiskCatalogMaker. It scans the drive and stores the file information in a catalog document. Each drive entry mimics what you see in the Finder, including folders, files, sizes, dates, and so on. The catalog document is searchable, which is why job numbers become important. It’s a good idea to periodically mount and spin up these drives to maintain reliability. Once a year is a minimum.

If you have sufficient capacity on your RAID or NAS, then you don’t want to immediately delete jobs and media when the work is done. In our case, once a job has been fully backed up, the job folder is moved into a BACKED UP folder on the NAS. This way we know when a job has been backed up, yet it is still easily retrieved should the client come back with revisions. Plus, you still have three total copies of the source media.

Other back-ups. I’ve talked a lot about backing up camera media, but what about other files? Generally files like graphics are supplied, so these are also backed up elsewhere. Plus they will get backed up on the raw drive when the job is done.

I also use Dropbox for interim back-ups of project files. Since a Premiere Pro project file is light and doesn’t carry media, it’s easy to back up in the cloud. At work, at the end of each day, each editor copies in-progress Premiere files to a company Dropbox folder. The idea is that in the event of some catastrophe, you could get your project back from Dropbox and then use the backed up camera drives to rebuild an edit. In addition, we also export and copy Resolve projects to Dropbox, as well as the DiskCatalogMaker catalog documents.

Whenever possible, audio stems and textless masters are exported for each completed job. These are stored with the final masters. Often it’s easier to make revisions using these elements, than to dive back into a complex job after it’s been deeply archived. Our NAS contains a separate top-level folder for all finished masters, in addition to the master subfolder within each project. When a production is done, the master file is copied into this other folder, resulting in two sets of the master files on the NAS. And by “master” I generally mean a final ProRes file along with a high-quality MP4 file. The MP4 is most often what the client will use as their “master,” since so much of our work these days is for the web. Therefore, both NAS locations hold a ProRes and an MP4. That’s in addition to the masters stored on the raw, back-up drive.

Final, Final revised, no really, this one is Final. Let’s address file naming conventions. Every editor knows the “danger” of calling something Final. Clients love to make changes until they no longer can. I work on projects that have running changes as adjustments are made for use in new presentations. Calling any of these “Final” never works. Broadcast commercials are usually assigned definitive ISCI codes, but that’s rarely the case with non-broadcast projects. The process that works for us is simply to use version numbers and dates. This makes sense and is what software developers use.

We use this convention: CLIENT_PROJECTNAME_VERSION_DATE_MODIFIER. As an example, if you are editing a McDonald’s Big Mac :60 commercial, then a final version might be labelled “MCD_Big Mac 60_v13_122620.” A slight change on that same day would become “MCD_Big Mac 60_v14_122620.” We use the “modifier” to designate variations from the norm. Our default master files are formatted as 1080p at 23.98 with stereo audio. So a variation exported as 4K/UHD or 720p or with a 5.1 surround mix would have the added suffix of “_4K” or “_720p” or “_51MIX.”

Some projects go through many updates and it’s often hard to know when a client (working remotely) considers a version truly done. They are supposed to tell you that, but they often just don’t. You sort of know, because the changes stop coming and a presentation deadline has been met. Whenever that happens, we export a ProRes master file plus high-quality MP4 files. The client may come back a week later with some revisions. Then, new ProRes and MP4 files are generated. Since version numbers are maintained, the ProRes master files will also have different version numbers and dates and, therefore, you can differentiate one from the other. Both variations may be valid and in use by the client.

Asset management. The last piece of software that comes in handy for us is Kyno. This is a lightweight asset management tool that we use to scan and find media on our NAS. Our method of organization makes it relatively easy to find things just by working in the Finder. However, if you are looking for that one piece of footage and need to be able to identify it visually, then that’s where Kyno is helpful. It’s like Adobe Bridge on steroids. One can organize and sort using the usual database tools, but it also has a very cool “drill down” feature. If you want to browse media within a folder without stepping through a series of subfolders, simply enable “drill down” and you can directly browse all media that’s contained therein. Kyno also features robust transcode and “send to” features designed with NLEs in mind. Prep media for an edit or create proxies? Simply use Kyno as an alternative to other options.

Hopefully this recap has provided some new workflow pointers for 2021. Good luck!

©2021 Oliver Peters