DaVinci Resolve Workflows

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Blackmagic Design’s purchase of DaVinci Systems put a world class color grading solution into the hands of every video professional. With Resolve 9, DaVinci sports a better user interface that makes it easy to run, regardless of whether you are an editor, colorist or DIT working on set.  DaVinci Resolve 9 comes in two basic Mac or Windows software versions, the $995 paid and the free Lite version. The new Blackmagic Cinema Camera software bundle also includes the full (paid) version, plus a copy of Ultrascope. For facilities seeking to add comprehensive color grading services, there’s also a version with Blackmagic’s dedicated control surface, as well as Linux systems configurations.

Both paid and free versions of Resolve (currently at version 9.1) work the same way, except that the paid version offers larger-than-HD output, noise reduction and the ability to tap into more than one extra GPU card for hardware acceleration. Resolve runs fine with a single display card (I’ve done testing with the Nvidia GT120, the Nvidia Quadro 4000 and the ATI 5870), but requires a Blackmagic video output card if you want to see the image on a broadcast monitor.

Work in Resolve 9 generally flows left-to-right, through the tabbed pages, which you select at the bottom of the interface screen. These are broken into Media (where you access the media files that you’ll be working with), Conform (importing/exporting EDL, XML and AAF files), Color (where you do color correction), Gallery (the place to store and recall preset looks) and Deliver (rendering and/or output to tape).

Many casual users employ Resolve in these two ways: a) correcting camera files to send on to editorial, and b) color correction roundtrips with NLE software. This tutorial is intended to highlight some of the basic workflow steps associated with these tasks. Resolve is deep and powerful, so spend time with the excellent manual to learn its color correction tools, which would be impossible to cover here.

Creating edit-ready dailies – BMCC (CinemaDNG media)

The Blackmagic Cinema Camera can record images as camera raw, CinemaDNG image sequences. Resolve 9 can be used to turn these into QuickTime or MXF media for editing. Files may be graded for the desired final look at this point, or the operator can choose to apply the BMD Film preset. This log preset generates files with a flat look comparable to ARRI Log-C. You may prefer this if you intend to use a Log-to-Rec709 LUT (look up table) in another grading application or a filter like the Pomfort Log-to-Video effect, which is available for Final Cut Pro 7/X.df_resolve_1_sm

Step 1 – Media: Drag clip folders into the Media Pool section.

Step 2 – Conform: Skip this tab, since the clips are already on a single timeline.

df_resolve_3_smStep 3 – Color: Make sure the camera setting (camera icon) for the clips on the timeline are set to Project. Open the project settings (gear icon). Change and apply these values: 1) Camera raw – CinemaDNG; 2) White Balance – as shot; 3) Color Space and Gamma – BMD Film.

Step 4 – Deliver: Set it to render each clip individually, assign the target destination and frame rate and the naming options. Then choose Add Job and Start Render.

The free version of Resolve will downscale the BMCC’s 2.5K-wide images to 1920×1080. The paid version of Resolve will permit output at the larger, native size. Rendered ProRes files may now be directly imported into FCP 7, FCP X or Premiere Pro. Correct the images to a proper video appearance by using the available color correction tools or filters within the NLE that you are using.

Creating edit-ready dailies – ARRI Alexa / BMCC (ProRes, DNxHD media)

df_resolve_2_smBoth the ARRI Alexa and the Blackmagic Cinema Camera can record Apple ProRes and Avid DNxHD media files to onboard storage. Each offers a similar log gamma profile that may be applied during recording in order to preserve dynamic range. Log-C for the Alexa and BMD Film for Blackmagic. These profiles facilitate high-quality grading later. Resolve may be used to properly grade these images to the final look as dailies are generated, or it may simply be used to apply a viewing LUT for a more pleasing appearance during the edit.

Step 1 – Media: Drag clip folders into the Media Pool section.

Step 2 – Conform: Skip this tab, since the clips are already on a single timeline.

Step 3 – Color: Make sure the camera setting for the clips on the timeline are set to Project. Open the project settings and set these values: 3D Input LUT – ARRI Alexa Log-C or BMD Film to Rec 709.

df_resolve_4_smStep 4 – Deliver: Set it to render each clip individually, assign the target destination and frame rate and the naming options. Check whether or not to render with audio. Then choose Add Job and Start Render.

The result will be new, color corrected media files, ready for editing. To render Avid-compatible MXF media for Avid Media Composer, select the Avid AAF Roundtrip from the Easy Setup presets. After rendering, return to the Conform page to export an AAF file.

Roundtrips – using Resolve together with editing applications

DaVinci Resolve supports roundtrips from and back to NLEs based on EDL, XML and AAF lists. You can use Resolve for roundtrips with Apple Final Cut Pro 7/X, Adobe Premiere Pro and Avid Media Composer/Symphony. You may also use it to go between systems. For example, you could edit in FCP X, color correct in Resolve and then finish in Premiere Pro or Autodesk Smoke 2013. Media should have valid timecode and reel IDs to enable the process to work properly.

df_resolve_5_smIn addition to accessing the camera files and generating new media with baked-in corrections, these roundtrips require an interchange of edit lists. Resolve imports an XML and/or AAF file to link to the original camera media and places those clips on a timeline that matches the edited sequence. When the corrected (and trimmed) media is rendered, Resolve must generate new XML and/or AAF files, which the NLE uses to link to these new media files. AAF files are used with Avid systems and MXF media, while standard XML files and QuickTime media is used with Final Cut Pro 7 and Premiere Pro. FCP X uses a new XML format that is incompatible with FCP 7 or Premiere Pro without translation by Resolve or another utility.

Step 1 – Avid/Premiere Pro/Final Cut Pro: Export a list file that is linked to the camera media (AAF, XML or FCPXML).

Step 2- Conform (skip Media tab): Import the XML or AAF file. Make sure you have set the options to automatically add these clips to the Media Pool.

Step 3 – Color: Grade your shots as desired.df_resolve_6_sm

Step 4 – Deliver: Easy Setup preset – select Final Cut Pro XML or Avid AAF roundtrip. Verify QuickTime or MXF rendering, depending on the target application. Change handle lengths if desired. Check whether or not to render with audio. Then choose Add Job and Start Render.

df_resolve_9_smStep 5 – Conform: Export a new XML (FCP7, Premiere Pro), FCPXML (FCP X) or AAF (Avid) list.

The roundtrip back

The reason you want to go back into your NLE is for the final finishing process, such as adding titles and effects or mixing sound. If you rendered QuickTime media and generated one of the XML formats, you’ll be able to import these new lists into FCP7/X or Premiere Pro and those applications will reconnect to the files in their current location. FCP X offers the option to import/copy the media into its own managed Events folders.

df_resolve_7_smIf you export MXF media and a corresponding AAF list with the intent of returning to Avid Media Composer/Symphony, then follow these additional steps.

Step 1 – Copy or move the folder of rendered MXF media files into an Avid MediaFiles/MXF subfolder. Rename this copied folder of rendered Resolve files with a number.

Step 2 – Launch Media Composer or Symphony and return to your project or create a new project.df_resolve_8_sm

Step 3 – Open a new, blank bin and import the AAF file that was exported from Resolve. This list will populate the bin with master clips and a sequence, which will be linked to the new MXF media rendered in Resolve and copied into the Avid MediaFiles/MXF subfolder.

Originally written for DV magazine / Creative Planet Network

©2013 Oliver Peters

Blackmagic Design HyperDeck Shuttle

df_hyperdeck_01The video industry has been moving towards complete file-based workflows, but that doesn’t replace all of the functions that traditional videotape recorders served. To bridge the gap, companies such as AJA, Blackmagic Design, Convergent Design, Sound Devices and others had developed solid state recorders for field and studio operation. I recently tested Blackmagic Design’s HyperDeck Shuttle 2, which is touted as the world’s smallest uncompressed recorder.

Blackmagic’s HyperDeck series includes the Shuttle and two Studio versions. The latter are rack-mounted VTR-replacement devices equipped with dual SSDs (solid state drives). The Shuttle is a palm-sized, battery powered “brick” recorder. A single SSD slides into the Shuttle enclosure, which is only a bit bigger than the drive itself – enough to accommodate battery, controls and internal electronics. To keep the unit small, controls are basic record and transport buttons, much like that of a consumer CD player. You can operate it connected to an external power supply, on-board camera power or battery-powered. The internal, non-removable, rechargeable battery holds its charge for a little over one hour of continuous operation. The purchased unit includes a 12-volt power supply and a kit of international AC plug adapters.

The HyperDeck Shuttle includes 3Gb/s SDI and HDMI for digital capture and playback. Recording formats include 10-bit uncompressed QuickTime movies, as well as Avid DNxHD 175x or 220x in either QuickTime or MXF-wrapped variations. At the time I tested this device, it would not record Apple ProRes codecs. In November, Blackmagic Design released a free software update (version 3.6), which added ProRes HQ to the uncompressed and DNxHD options. It also added closed captioning support to all HyperDeck models.

Since the unit is designed for minimal interaction, all system set-up is handled by an external software utility. Install this application on your computer, connect the HyperDeck Shuttle via USB and then you’ll be able to select recording formats and other preferences, such as whether or not to trigger recording via SDI (for on-camera operation). The unit has no menu, which means you cannot alter, rename or delete files using the button controls or the software utility. There is a display button, but that was not active in the software version that I tested.

Solid state recording

df_hyperdeck_03The SSD used is a standard 2.5” SATA III drive. Several different brands and types have been tested and qualified by Blackmagic Design for use with the HyperDeck units. These drives can be plugged into a generic hard drive dock, like a Thermaltake BlacX Duet to format the drive and copy/erase any files. The SSD was Mac-formatted, so it was simply a matter of pulling the drive out of the Shuttle’s slot and plugging it into the Duet, which was connected to my Mac Pro tower. This allowed me to copy files from the drive to my computer, as well as to move files back to the SSD for later playback from the Shuttle. (At IBC, Blackmagic also announced ExFAT support with the HyperDeck products.) The naming convention is simple, so recorded files are labeled Capture001, Capture002 and so on. Unfortunately, it does not embed reel numbers into the QuickTime files. Placing a similarly named file in the correct format (more on that in a moment) onto the drive makes it possible to use the Shuttle as a portable master playback device for presentations, film festivals, etc.

My evaluation unit came equipped with an 240GB OCZ Vertex 3 SSD. This is an off-the-shelf drive that runs under $200 at most outlets. By comparison, a Sony 124-minute HDCAM-SR videotape is now more expensive. It’s amazing that this SSD will sustain extended 10-bit uncompressed 1080i/59.94 recording and playback, when even most small drive arrays can’t do that! In practical terms, a 240GB drive will not hold a lot of 1080i 10-bit uncompressed media, so it’s more likely that you would use Avid DNxHD 220X or Apple ProRes HQ for the best quality. You could easily fit over 90 minutes of content on the same SSD using one of these codecs and not really see any difference in image quality.

In actual use

I tested the unit with various codecs and frame rates. As a general rule, it’s not a good idea to mix different flavors on the same drive. For example, if you record both 1080i 10-bit uncompressed and 1080p/23.98 Avid DNxHD clips on the same drive, the HyperDeck Shuttle will only be able to playback the clips that match its current set-up. The Shuttle does auto-detect the incoming frame rate without the need to set that using the utility. It did seem to get “confused” in this process, making it hard to access the clips that I thought it should have been able to play. The clips are on the SSD, though, so you can still pull them off of the drive for use in editing. For standard operation, I would suggest that you set your preferences for the current production and stick to that until you are done.

df_hyperdeck_02Blackmagic Design sells a mounting plate as an accessory. It’s easy to install by unscrewing the HyperDeck’s back panel and screwing in the mounting plate in its place. I loaned the unit to a director of photography that I work with for use with a Canon C300.  Although there are common mounting holes, the DP still ended up having to use Velcro as a means to install both his battery and the Shuttle onto the same camera rig. The recordings looked good, but the SDI trigger did not properly stop the recording, requiring the DP to manually stop the unit with each take. Another issue for some is that it uses Mini-BNC connectors. This requires an investment in some Mini-BNC adapter cables for SDI operation, if you intend to connect it to standard BNC spigots.

Overall, the unit performed well in a variety of applications, but with a few quirks. I frequently found that it didn’t respond to my pushing the transport control buttons. I’m not sure if this was due to bad button contacts or a software glitch. It felt more like a software issue, in that once it “settled down” stepping forward and backward through clips and pushing the play button worked correctly. The only format I was not able to playback was 24p media recorded as MXF. Nevertheless the MXF formatting was correct, as I could drop these files right into an Avid Mediafiles folder on my media hard drive for editing with Avid Symphony.

HyperDeck Shuttle as a portable player

If you intend to use a HyperDeck Shuttle as a master playback device, then there a few things you need to know. It can capture interlaced, progressive and progressive-segmented-frame (PsF) footage, but it will only play these out as either interlaced or progressive via the SDI connection. Playing PsF as progressive is fine for many monitors and projectors, but the signal doesn’t pass through many routers or to some other recorders. Often these broadcast devices only function with a “true” progressive signal if the format is 720p/59.94. This means that it would be unlikely that you could play a 1080p/23.98 file (captured as PsF) and record that output from the HyperDeck Shuttle to a Sony HDCAM-SR video recorder, as an example.

It is possible to export a file from your Avid NLE, copy that file to the HyperDeck’s SSD using a drive dock and play it back from the unit; however, the specs get a little touchy. The HyperDeck Shuttle records audio as 16-bit/48kHz in the Little Endian format, but Avid exports its files as Big Endian. Endianness refers to how the bytes are ordered in a 16-, 32- or 64-bit word and whether the most or least significant bit is first. In the case of the Shuttle, this difference meant that I couldn’t get any audio output during playback. If your goal is to transfer a file to the Shuttle for duplication to another deck or playback in a presentation environment, then I would recommend that you take the time to make a real-time recording. Simply connect your NLE’s SDI output to the HyperDeck Shuttle’s SDI input and manually record to it, on-the-fly, like a tape deck.

The HyperDeck Shuttle is a great little unit for filling in workflow gaps. For example, if you don’t own any tape decks, but need to take a master to a duplication facility. You could easily use the Shuttle to transport your media to them and use it for on-site master playback. It’s a bit too quirky to be a great on-camera field recorder, but at $345 (plus the SSD), the Shuttle is an amazing value for image quality that good. As with their other products, Blackmagic Design has a history of enhancing the capabilities through subsequent software updates. I expect that in the future, we’ll see the HyperDeck family grow in a similar fashion.

Originally written for DV magazine / Creative Planet Network

© 2013 Oliver Peters

Offline to online with 4K

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The 4K buzz  seems to be steam-rolling the industry just like stereo3D before it. It’s too early to tell whether it will be an immediate issue for editors or not, since 4K delivery requirements are few and far between. Nevertheless, camera and TV-set manufacturers  are building important parts of the pipeline. RED Digital Cinema is leading the way with a post workflow that’s both proven and relatively accessible on any budget. A number of NLEs support editing and effects in 4K, including Avid DS, Autodesk Smoke, Adobe Premiere Pro, Apple Final Cut Pro X, Grass Valley EDIUS and Sony Vegas Pro.

Although many of these support native cutting with RED 4K media, I’m still a strong believer in the traditional offline-to-online editing workflow. In this post I will briefly outline how to use Avid Media Composer and Apple FCP X for a cost-effective 4K post pipeline. One can certainly start and finish a RED-originated project in FCP X or Premiere Pro for that matter, but Media Composer is still the preferred creative  tool for many editing pros. Likewise, FCP X is a viable finishing tool. I realize that statement will raise a few eyebrows, but hear me out. Video passing through Final Cut is very pristine, it supports the various flavors of 2K and 4K formats and there’s a huge and developing ecosystem of highly-inventive effects and transitions. This combination is a great opportunity to think outside of the box.

Offline editing with Avid Media Composer

df_4k_wkflw_04_smAvid has supported native RED files for several versions, but Media Composer is not resolution independent. This means RED’s 4K (or 5K) images are downsampled to 1080p and reformatted (cropped or letterboxed) to fit into the 16:9 frame. When you shoot with a RED camera, you should ideally record in one of their 4K 16:9 sizes. The native .r3d files can be brought into Media Composer using the “Link to AMA File(s)” function. Although you can edit directly with AMA-linked files, the preferred method is to use this as a “first step”. That means, you should use AMA to cull your footage down to the selected takes and then transcode the remainder when you start to fine tune your cut.

Avid’s media creation settings are the place to adjust the RED debayer parameters. Media Composer supports the RED Rocket card for accelerated rendering, but without it, Media Composer can still provide reasonable speed in software-only transcoding. Set the debayer quality to 1/4 or 1/8, and transcoding 4K clips to Avid DNxHD36 for offline editing will be closer to real-time on a fast machine, like an 8-core Mac Pro. This resolution is adequate for making your creative decisions.df_4k_wkflw_02_sm

df_4k_wkflw_08_smWhen the cut is locked, export an AAF file for the edited sequence. Media should be linked (not embedded) and the AAF Edit Protocol setting should be enabled. In this workflow, I will assume that audio post is being handled by an audio editor/mixer running a DAW, such as Pro Tools, so I’ll skip any discussion of audio. That would be exported using standard AAF or OMF workflows for audio post. Note that all effects should be removed from your sequence before generating the AAF file, since they won’t be translated in the next steps. This includes any nested clips, collapsed tracks and speed ramps, which are notorious culprits in any timeline translation.

Color grading with DaVinci Resolve

df_4k_wkflw_03_smBlackmagic Design’s DaVinci Resolve 9 is our next step. You’ll need the full, paid version (software-only) for bigger-than-HD output. After launching Resolve, import the Avid AAF file from Resolve’s conform tab. Make sure you check “link to camera files” so that Resolve connects to the original .r3d media and not the Avid DNxHD transcodes. Resolve will import the sequence, connect to the media and generate a new timeline that matches the sequence exported from Media Composer. Make sure the project is set for the desired 4K format.

df_4k_wkflw_09_smNext, open the Resolve project settings and adjust the camera raw values to the proper RED settings. Then make sure the individual clips are set to “project” in their camera settings tab. You can either use the original camera metadata or adjust all clips to a new value in the project settings pane. Once this is done, you are ready to grade the timeline as with any other production. Resolve uses a very good scaling algorithm, so if the RED files were framed with the intent of resizing and repositioning (for example, 5K files that are to be cropped for the ideal framing within a 4K timeline), then it’s best to make that adjustment within the Resolve timeline.df_4k_wkflw_05_sm

Once you’ve completed the grade, set up the render. Choose the FCP XML easy set-up and alter the output frame size to the 4K format you are using. Start the render job. Resolve 9 renders quite quickly, so even without a RED Rocket card, I found that 4K ProRes HQ or 4444 rendering, using full-resolution debayering, was completed in about a 6:1 ratio to running time on my Mac Pro. When the renders are done, export the FCP XML (for FCP X) from the conform tab. I found I had to use an older version of this new XML format, even though I was running FCP X 10.0.7. It was unable to read the newest version that Resolve had exported.

Online with Apple Final Cut Pro X

df_4k_wkflw_11_smThe last step is finishing. Import the Resolve-generated XML file, which will in turn create the necessary FCP Event (media linked to the 4K ProRes files rendered from Resolve) and a timeline for the edited sequence. Make sure the sequence (Project) settings match your desired 4K format. Import and sync the stereo or surround audio mix (generated by the audio editor/mixer) and rebuild any effects, titles, transitions and fast/slo-mo speed effects. Once everything is completed, use FCP X’s share menu to export your deliverables.

©2013 Oliver Peters

Blackmagic Cinema Camera post workflows

Digital camera development has been running in high gear for several years outpacing any other portion of our industry. Thanks to a revolution started by RED, Nikon and Canon, videographers are now blessed with a wide range of small, affordable, high-performance imaging systems that have broken us free from the confines of the mundane 2/3” video camera. The newest entrant is the Blackmagic Cinema Camera introduced by the industry’s favorite disrupter, Blackmagic Design. Marked by a small form factor, QuickTime or camera raw recording and a $3K price tag, Blackmagic has been able to bring to market a product that seems to have eluded many other seasoned camera manufacturers.

The basic engineering design of the Blackmagic Cinema Camera is a “sandwich” of an EF or MFT (Micro Four Thirds) lens mount, a recording device based on the HyperDeck Shuttle and a touch screen/viewfinder. It records either 1920×1080 ProResHQ QuickTime movie files or 2400×1350 CinemaDNG camera raw image sequences. (Version 1.1 software was recently released, which adds Avid DNxHD support.) The high-def QuickTime files are downsampled from the 2.5K sensor. With CinemaDNG selected, each clip is treated as a folder of individual frames, plus a broadcast wave file. Each time “record” is pressed, a new folder is created for that clip. The camera raw files maintain the full sensor resolution, allowing for high-quality reframing and digital zooms in post.

This isn’t a camera review, so I’ll leave the discussion of the merits of the camera in the field to others. Since the BMCC offers new options to filmmakers, it’s important to understand how to handle these files in post. (Click any of these images for an expanded view.)

Understanding camera raw

Camera raw is not an acronym. The term refers to a file that has not gone through full processing to produce a final RGB image. The full dynamic range of the sensor’s ability to capture light is maintained in raw images. Different manufacturers use different camera raw methods and profiles for individual models. When you get frequent software updates to Apple Aperture or Adobe Photoshop, it’s often to add new camera profiles to keep current with the latest Canon or Nikon offerings. In most camera raw images, ISO/exposure and color temperature/tint values are represented as metadata recorded by the camera at the time the image was captured. As metadata, it can be altered in post and isn’t “baked in” as a permanent part of the image – as it would with a TIFF or JPEG still. If a camera raw image appears to be slightly overexposed, post processing software allows you to recover the highlight detail by changing the ISO or exposure values.

Adobe launched an initiative to create a common camera raw format as a type of “digital negative” file, which became the DNG standard. This was released as open source software and is available for manufacturers to use in their products as DNG (stills) and CinemaDNG (motion), thus eliminating the need to create their own new, proprietary camera raw file format. Blackmagic uses this CinemaDNG file format for its raw image sequences, which means that a wide range of applications can read, open and import these files natively. Those that include camera raw importer modules also enable you to alter the recorded settings within that application.

Correctly importing camera raw images is important. For instance, Apple Final Cut Pro X will natively read the BMCC’s CinemaDNG files, but it currently has no raw importer settings. If the “as shot” metadata makes the image appear overexposed with clipped highlights, you cannot recover that detail from within FCP X. Likewise, not all camera raw importers use the same values. An image opened at the default or the “as shot” value in DaVinci Resolve will look different than in an Adobe application. The beauty of raw, though, is that the image is within an adjustable range and any of these importers will give you good results with a few tweaks.

Image sequence workflows

Blackmagic Design includes a full copy of DaVinci Resolve 9 with the purchase of the camera and that’s obviously their recommended tool for producing editing “dailies” and final color correction. Since DNG is a still photo format, grading and conversion can be handled in other applications, too, including Adobe Photoshop, Lightroom, After Effects and Apple Aperture. Each of these applications includes camera raw controls to get the most out of the image. Currently, you cannot import the camera raw files directly into Avid Media Composer, Apple Color or Adobe Premiere Pro. SpeedGrade (with the latest updates) will read the files, but offers no specific camera raw adjustments. There the default import of CinemaDNG files renders a flat, log-style image as a starting point.

The following is a simple workflow using a photography application, such as Lightroom or Aperture. Import each folder of CinemaDNG files into the application. Now select a representative frame within that group and apply your adjustments. Since these are full-featured color correction tools, go as extreme as you like, if you intend to create the final look at this time. Once you get the appearance you want, copy-and-paste those settings to the other images in that folder. These are non-destructive changes within Lightroom and Aperture and may be altered at any time in the future. Next, export the adjusted versions as a new set of TIFFs to a separate folder on your hard drive. These TIFFs will contain the “baked in” look you have just created.

The process is a bit different in Photoshop, but there you have the option of using one of the many special tools and filters to create unique looks. For example, you can apply an oil paint or dark strokes effect for an artistic, painted style. Open a representative frame from a shot and apply the settings you want to use. As you do this, record the steps as a Photoshop Action. When you are happy with the look, use Photoshop’s Batch function to apply this saved Action to all the frames in a folder for each shot.

The CinemaDNG files are 5MB/frame in size, while the exported TIFFs are 9.8MB each. It is possible to open a TIFF image sequence in QuickTime 7 and save it as a QuickTime reference movie. That, in turn, can be used as an editing source in Final Cut Pro 7 and X. As a reference movie, if you update the files later by re-exporting TIFFs with a new look, the reference movie will also be updated to reflect these new files. FCP X offers a performance edge by being able to play these 2.5K sequences natively in real-time within a 2K or HD timeline. QuickTime reference movies are 8-bit, but I saw no visual difference when comparing these files to 10-bit uncompressed and ProRes4444 exports. I would recommend that you transcode these to proxy editing files in FCP X if you opt for the QuickTime reference method.

After Effects offers another solution. You can open CinemaDNG image sequences, make adjustments with its camera raw importer, and then render out final, graded movie files. Naturally, plug-ins like Magic Bullet Looks add more options for custom styles. If you opt to first convert the DNG sequences to TIFFs using Lightroom or Aperture, then Avid Media Composer and Symphony will auto-detect the files as an image sequence and import them as a single media file.

DaVinci Resolve 9

DaVinci Resolve 9 is an advanced grading tool, but may also be used simply to turn the image sequences into a set of flat-looking QuickTime movie files, suitable for color correction later. Resolve 9 now includes a camera raw settings tab. Tweak the settings and then export each clip as a separate movie file. Blackmagic Design has implemented BMD Film with this camera. It’s a log-encoded color space and gamma profile that resembles ARRI’s Log-C. This profile may be selected in-camera for the QuickTime files, but may also be used as a preset in the Resolve 9 raw module (also available in the free Lite version).

So far, my testing has been limited to the handful of clips by Australian DP John Brawley. These are sample shots from the short film Afterglow, which was produced to showcase the Blackmagic Cinema Camera. Brawley has posted several shots online in both CinemaDNG and ProResHQ formats. The QuickTime files from the camera were encoded with the BMD Film profile, which matches the same setting when applied to camera raw files converted through Resolve 9.

BMD Film

The option of using After Effects, Photoshop, Lightroom or Aperture gives users an interesting new toolset for creating stunning images; but, for most, there’s a comfort factor in using your favorite NLE or grading software. I believe the majority of users will probably stick to shooting ProResHQ files using the BMD Film log profile, because it’s a proven workflow. It preserves the dynamic range and gives you most of the latitude available from the CinemaDNG files. Camera raw files exported from Resolve 9 as ProResHQ using the BMD Film preset (without other correction) are identical to the appearance of the QuickTimes recorded in-camera. The ARRI ALEXA also shoots raw and Log-C, which makes the BMCC are interesting option as a sort of “baby ALEXA”. I haven’t intercut clips from a project that was shot with both an ALEXA and the Blackmagic camera yet, but I suspect the BMCC would work well as a good B or C camera in this type of production.

When I take the BMD Film-encoded clips into Final Cut Pro 7 or X, the values are close enough to Log-C that I can use many of the same LUTs and filters. For example, the Pomfort Alexa Look2Video filter that I use to correct Log-C into Rec 709 works equally well with BMD Film. I’ve done grading tests using a range of NLEs and color correction software and have been very impressed with the results from these Afterglow test clips. Working with the CinemaDNG or ProResHQ BMCC clips will fit into established workflows, without the need to learn new, proprietary tools. No matter what your preference – Avid, FCP X, Premiere, After Effects, Color, Resolve, Photoshop, etc. – this is one new camera that was designed with post in mind first.

Click here to see a variety of grading examples.

Originally written for Digital Video magazine.

© 2012 Oliver Peters

Grading through digital bipacks

When you hear someone use the term bipack, you think they are making the word up or just BS’ing you. In fact, bipack refers to an old technique used to create in-camera film effects. Film timers also used the technique to create certain color effects. In modern times, we are really referring to ways that involve blending or superimposing images and this has a direct relationship on tricks you can use in color correction.

The concept of blending two images with different values is a lot like working with layers and blend modes in Photoshop. Some color correction applications, like SpeedGrade, also use a Photoshop-style system of layers. You aren’t limited to color correction applications, though, because these exact same tricks can be used in any NLE. For example, editors have frequently built a look referred to as “instant sex”, which is a technique for adding highlight glows by compositing copies of the same clip on two video layers. The process is easiest with NLEs and compositors like Motion or After Effects that offer composite modes. I find Apple Final Cut Pro X to be a good NLE for these tricks, because the interface design makes it easy to blend and adjust two stacked clips.

I’ll cover several quick examples of how you might use this technique. (Click any of these images for an expanded view.) For clips, I’ve grabbed shots from Afterglow, a short film photographed by John Brawley to promote the release of the Blackmagic Cinema Camera. The source clips are QuickTime ProRes files was a BMD Film (flat, log) gamma profile. To these I’ve added a Pomfort LUT filter normally used for ARRI Alexa Log-C. This corrects the clips back to their intended REC 709 appearance and becomes my starting point.

To stack clips in FCP X, simply edit the clip to the primary storyline and the option-drag it up to duplicate a version as an in-sync, connected clip. Since composite modes often create illegal video levels, I place an adjustment layer clip (a modified Motion title) on top, with a broadcast safe filter added to it.

In this first example, the bottom clip is changed to black-and-white by reducing the saturation in the FCP X color board. The top clip’s composite mode is set to Soft Light. Grading for the right tonal qualities becomes a dance between the settings on the two layers and the opacity value of the top clip’s compositing mode.

If I add a Gaussian blur to the lower clip, change the compositing mode of the top clip to Overlay and tweak the color board settings of the two clips, the look changes from harsh to glamour.

In this billiards shot I’m using the Soft Light mode again, but this time I have tinted the lower clip to a slight teal cast. The top clip is a vibrant orange, but the combination of the two ends up with the more normal-looking and popular orange-and-teal grade.

In this balcony shot I’m using the Overlay mode and have added a slight directional blur to the top layer. The bottom layer is desaturated with a slight tint while the top layer is more vibrant. Combined they have a high-contrast, bleached look.

In this final example, I’ve reversed some items. The top layer is set to the Multiply mode at 80% opacity and I’ve made it black-and-white. The color correction is again a matter of compensating between the two layers to get the right feel.

When I add a Gaussian blur to the top clip the look changes from harsh to a nice, diffused appearance.

© 2012 Oliver Peters