The Ouch of 4K Post

df_4kpost_sm4K is the big buzz. Many in the post community are wondering when the tipping point will be reached when their clients will demand 4K masters. 4K acquisition has been with us for awhile and has generally proven to be useful for its creative options, like reframing during post. This has been possible long before the introduction of the RED One camera, if you were shooting on film. But acquiring in 4K and higher is quite a lot different than working a complete 4K post production pipeline.

There are a lot of half-truths surrounding 4K, so let me tackle a couple. When we talk about 4K, the moniker applies only to frame dimensions in pixels, not resolution, as in sharpness. There are several 4K dimensions, depending on whether you mean cinema specs or television specs. The cinema projection spec is 4096 x 2160 (1.9:1 aspect ratio) and within that, various aspects and frame sizes can be placed. The television or consumer spec is 3840 x 2160 (16:9 or 1.78:1 aspect ratio), which is an even multiple of HD at 1920 x 1080. That’s what most consumer 4K TV sets use. It is referred to by various labels, such as Ultra HD, UHD, UHDTV, Quad HD, 4K HD and so on. If you are delivering a digital cinema master it will be 4096 pixels wide, but if you deliver a television 4K master, it will be 3840 pixels wide. Regardless of which format your deliverable will be, you will most likely want to acquire at 4096 x 2304 (16:9) or larger, because this gives you some reframing space for either format.

This brings us to resolution. Although the area of the 4K frame is 4x that of a 1080p HD frame, the actual resolution is only theoretically 2x better. That’s because resolution is measured based on the vertical dimension and is a factor of the ability to resolve small detail in the image (typically based on thin lines of a resolution chart). True resolution is affected by many factors, including lens quality, depth of field, accuracy of the focus, contrast, etc. When you blow up a 35mm film frame and analyze high-detail areas within the frame, you often find them blurrier than you’d expect.

The brings us to post. The push for 4K post comes from a number of sources, but many voices in the independent owner-operator camp have been the strongest. These include many RED camera owners, who successfully cut their own material straight from the native media of the camera. NLEs, like Adobe Premiere Pro CC and Apple Final Cut Pro X, make this a fairly painless experience for small, independent projects, like short films and commercials. Unfortunately it’s an experience that doesn’t extrapolate well to the broader post community, which works on a variety projects and must interchange media with numerous other vendors.

The reason 4K post seems easy and viable to many is that the current crop of 4K camera work with highly compressed codecs and many newer computers have been optimized to deal with these codecs. Therefore, if you shoot with a RED (Redcode), Canon 1DC (Motion-JPEG), AJA Cion (ProRes), BMD URSA (ProRes) and Sony F55 (XAVC), you are going to get a tolerable post experience using post-ready, native media or by quickly transcoding to ProRes. But that’s not how most larger productions work. A typical motion picture or television show will take the camera footage and process it into something that fits into a known pipeline. This usually means uncompressed DPX image sequences, plus proxy movies for the editors. This allows a base level of color management that can be controlled through the VFX pipeline without each unit along the way adding their own color interpretation. It also keeps the quality highest without further decompression/recompression cycles, as well as various debayering methods used.

Uncompressed or even mildy compressed codecs mean a huge storage commitment for an ongoing facility. Here’s a quick example. I took a short RED clip that was a little over 3 minutes long. It was recorded as 4096 x 2304 at 23.976fps. This file was a bit over 7GB in its raw form. Then I converted this to these formats with the following results:

ProRes 4444 – 27GB

ProRes HQ (also scaled to UHD 3840 x 2160) – 16GB

Uncompressed 10-Bit – 116GB

DPX images (10-bits per channel) – 173GB

TIFF images (8-bits per channel) – 130GB

As you can see, storage requirement increase dramatically. This can be mitigated by tossing out some data, as the ProRes444 versus down-sampled ProResHQ comparison shows. It’s worth noting that I used the lower DPX and TIFF color depth options, as well. At these settings, a single 4K DPX frame is 38MB and a single 4K TIFF frame is 28MB.

For comparison, a complete 90-100 minute feature film mastered at 1920 x 1080 (23.976fps) as ProRes HQ will consume about 110-120GB of storage. UHD is still 4x the frame area, so if we use the ProRes HQ example above, 30x that 3 min. clip would give us the count for a typical feature. That figure comes out to 480GB.

This clearly has storage ramifications. A typical indie feature shot with two RED cameras over a one-month period, will likely generate about 5-10TB of media in the camera original raw form. If this same media were converted to ProRes444, never mind uncompressed, your storage requirements just increased to an additional 16-38TB. Mind you this is all as 24p media. As we start talking 4K in television-centric applications around the world, this also means 4K at 25, 30, 50 and 60fps. 60fps means 2.5x more storage demands than 24p.

The other element is system performance. Compressed codecs work when the computer is optimized for these. RED has worked hard to make Redcode easy to work with on modern computers. Apple ProRes enjoys near ubiquitous playback support. ProRes HQ even at 4K will play reasonably well from a two-drive RAID-0 stripe on my Mac Pro. Recode plays if I lower the debayer quality. Once you start getting into uncompressed files and DPX or TIFF image strings, it takes a fast drive array and a fast computer to get anything approaching consistent real-time playback. Therefore, the only viable workflow is an offline-online editorial system, since creative editorial generally requires multiple streams of simultaneous media.

This workflow gets even worse with other cameras. One example is the Canon C500, which records 4K camera raw files to an external recorder, such as the Convergent Design Odyssey 7Q. These are proprietary Canon camera raw files, which cannot be natively played by an NLE. These must first be turned into something else using a Canon utility. Since the Odyssey records to internal SSDs, media piles up pretty quickly. With two 512GB SSDs, you get 62 minutes of record time at 24fps if you record Canon 4K raw. In the real world of production, this becomes tough, because it means you either have to rent or buy numerous SSDs for your shoot or copy and reuse as you go. Typically transferring 1TB of data on set is not a fast process.

Naturally there are ways to make 4K post efficient and not as painful as it needs to be. But it requires a commitment to hardware resources. It’s not conducive to easy desktop post running off of a laptop, like DV and even HD has been. That’s why you still see Autodesk Smokes, Quantel Rio Pablos and other high-end systems dominate at the leading facilities. Think, plan and buy before you jump in.

©2014 Oliver Peters

Avid Media Composer | Software v8

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At NAB Avid presented its Avid Everywhere concept. While Everywhere is a over-arching marketing concept, involving “the cloud”, storage, asset management, a marketplace and more, for most independent editors, Avid is all about Media Composer and/or Pro Tools. Given that, there’s very little in the Everywhere concept that affects these users. The most salient part is a restructuring of licensing and software options.

Media Composer and the options

Avid’s flagship NLE is now known as Media Composer | Software and version numbers are only internal, rather than part of the product branding. Avid released Media Composer version 8.0 in May, but it is only known as Media Composer. Added to this are three options: Media Composer | Symphony, Media Composer | NewsCutter and Media Composer | Cloud. NewsCutter, which always was a variation of Media Composer, is now sold as an option, which adds news-centric features to the interface. Media Composer | Cloud (formerly known as Interplay Sphere) is essentially a plug-in to Media Composer that allows remote access to an Avid asset management and storage system. NewsCutter and Cloud require a larger facility infrastructure, so I’ll skip them in this discussion. They have little bearing on what most independent editors do.

Two other past options, PhraseFind and ScriptSync, are currently not available, as these are based on a phonetic search engine technology licensed from Nexidia. Avid and Nexidia are in current discussions for a new licensing arrangement. While many editors rely on this technology, most do not. It is important to realize that Avid’s script integration and the internal Find tool are not completely tied to this technology and continue to work fine. The Nexidia options add a level of automation to the process through a phonetic match-up between waveforms and typed text.

Without ScriptSync, you can still create script-based bins, but the alignment of takes to script lines has to be done manually. Without PhraseFind, you can still search for text found in bin fields, but you cannot search by audio. Nexidia sells its own products, as well as licenses another application for editors that is sold through BorisFX as Soundbite. This is a standalone application geared to Final Cut and Premiere, but is not compatible with Media Composer. Until this gets resolved, Avid has advised editors who are dependent on ScriptSync or PhraseFind, not to upgrade past Media Composer version 7 software. Resellers still have these options available, in a version that is compatible with earlier versions of Media Composer.

Enter the new model

Media Composer version 8 is the first release of the application under the new licensing guidelines. You can now buy or rent Media Composer using three methods: perpetual license (own), subscription (rental) or floating license. The latter applies to larger facilities that are interested in purchasing “packs” of 20 or 50 perpetual licenses, which can be assigned to various machines as their production needs shift. The subscription license is based on an annual commitment ($49.99/mo-individual) or month-by-month ($74.99/mo-individual) rental and may be used by individuals or facilities. For example, facilities may have a number of perpetual licenses, but need to add a few seats of Media Composer for several months to accommodate an incoming, short-term production. They could choose to augment their “owned” licenses with additional subscription licenses to get through this immediate production crunch.

Most customers are likely to be interested in the changes in how you “own” the software, as the perpetual license model has changed from that of the past. When you now purchase Media Composer | Software, the cost is $1299, which covers the cost of the software plus one year of Avid support and any upgrades within the course of that year. (The actual support portion of that includes unlimited tech support over the web and one tech support phone call per month.) Customers still interested in a hardware license key (dongle) may purchase one for an additional $500. The Symphony option adds $749 to the bill. Current Media Composer owners (MC 6.5 or higher) can upgrade to MC 8 simply by purchasing a single year of support at $299 before the end of 2014. No matter how they got there (new purchase or renewal of an existing license) the software license is now on the current plan.

The important thing is that you have to renew again at the end of the first year of support. This is where the complaints have come in. As long as you renew your support contract each year at $299 (current price) then you will get any Avid updates to the software without having to purchase a separate software upgrade. (In the past, a Media Composer version upgrade has been more expensive than that year of support.) However, if you decide to let the support lapse for a year and then decide you want an upgrade, you will have to repurchase the product and any options anew.

Let’s say you bought Media Composer with the Symphony option – $1299 + $749. Hypothetically, by the end of the first year, Media Composer | Software has moved up to v8.5 and then you decide not to renew. From that point on, your version is “frozen” and cannot be upgraded. A year later, Media Composer | Software v10 comes out with enough compelling features to get you back on board. You cannot renew your v8.5 software license to upgrade, but instead have to purchase the current version Media Composer and Symphony again. Now you have two licenses: MC v8.5 and MC v10. Both work, but the older one is not upgradeable while the newer one is, as long as you renew its support contract after the end of the first year from the time of purchase.

Third-party bundles

In addition to the Nexidia issue, Avid now offers fewer third-party applications and effects as a bundle with the software. With the last few versions, you received Avid DVD, AvidFX, Sorenson Squeeze and BorisFX BCC filters (BCC only with the Symphony option). Avid DVD is no longer being developed. Variations of the others are now sold with a separate Production Pack third-party bundle. It gets a little confusing, because the options vary a bit between the perpetual and subscription models. If you buy the software, you now only get the NewBlueFX Titler Pro 1 and a starter set of their filters. “Lite” versions of Sorenson Squeeze and BCC (4 effects only) are offered with the subscription model. Since these are third-party products, you can still purchase them independently and existing versions that you already own will continue to work with Media Composer. BorisFX is offering upgrade deals to their products from past versions. Since AvidFX is simply an OEM version of Boris RED, one of their current deals is to upgrade from AvidFX to Boris RED 5.5 for $295. You can also upgrade to BCC 9 AVX for $599.

It’s a shame to lose the tools that were included in the past, but it really boils down to a consequence of the industry’s “race to the bottom”. At the prices that Avid currently sells Media Composer | Software, there simply is no margin left over to make third-party bundling deals. Developers aren’t going to accept a pittance just to be packaged with Media Composer. From the customer’s angle, you still have a decent set of audio and video filters included with Media Composer, including the NewBlueFX starter filters, Avid Illusion effects and the built-in Animatte effects tools. If you need more than that, you’ll simply have to purchase other plug-ins.

What to do

You own Media Composer version 7. What should you do now? The good news is that there’s no urgency to upgrade. MC v8 is essentially the same as v7.0.4, except with a new resident license tool (Application Manager). There are no new compelling features in MC v8 itself. Avid has promised one or more upgrades to happen during the year and resolution-independence has been mentioned as a technology that will come to Media Composer (although no specific commitment to a timeframe). You have until the end of the year to spend your $299 for support and get onto version 8.x. The smart money is advising to wait a few months and see what the next update brings. If it’s compelling, then you can take advantage of the deal and purchase the annual support, which gives you access to the new software (if you are on a recent version of Media Composer). The advantage to this is that the one-year clock starts at that time, so the later in the year that you do this, the longer the time (from now) that you have, before you need to renew again.

Changes like this always create a certain amount of tension. That’s been clear in the debates around Adobe’s shift to subscription with Creative Cloud. Users will inevitably compare the new costs to their old upgrade patterns and what the software used to cost them. I’m not sure that’s entirely fair, since financial pressures change and none of these companies have ever said that changes to their pricing wouldn’t happen, if it’s necessary. It seems to me that Avid has adopted the best blend of purchase and rental that I’ve seen among the NLE companies. There’s an incentive to stay current with the software, which is both to Avid’s and the customer’s advantage. If you were a loyal user who stayed current and always bought the upgrades when they came out, then the new deal is better for you financially. If you tended to sit on old versions and only sporadically upgraded, then you are likely to pay more this way. No right or wrong – just the way it is.

©2014 Oliver Peters

Final Cut “Studio 2014″

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A few years ago I wrote some posts about Final Cut Pro as a platform and designing an FCP-centric facility. Those options have largely been replaced by an Adobe approach built around Creative Cloud. Not everyone has warmed up to Creative Cloud. Either they don’t like the software or they dislike the software rental model or they just don’t need much of the power offered by the various Adobe applications.

If you are looking for alternatives to a Creative Cloud-based production toolkit, then it’s easy to build your own combination with some very inexpensive solutions. Most of these are either Apple software or others that are sold through the Mac App Store. As with all App Store purchases, you buy the product once and get updates for free, so long as the product is still sold as the same. Individual users may install the apps onto as many Mac computers as they personally own and control, all for the one purchase price. With this in mind, it’s very easy for most editors to create a powerful bundle that’s equal to or better than the old Final Cut Studio bundle – at less than its full retail price back in the day.

The one caveat to all of this is how entrenched you may or may not be with Adobe products. If you need to open and alter complex Illustrator, Photoshop, After Effects or Premiere Pro project files, then you will absolutely need Adobe software to do it. In that case, maybe you can get by with an old version (CS6 or earlier) or maybe trial software will work. Lastly you could outsource to a colleague with Adobe software or simply pick up a Creative Cloud subscription on a month-by-month rental. On the other hand, if you don’t absolutely need to interact with Adobe project files, then these solutions may be all you need. I’m not trying to advocate for one over the other, but rather to add some ideas to think about.

Final Cut Pro X / Motion / Compressor

df_fcpstudio_fcpx_smThe last Final Cut Studio bundle included FCP 7, Motion, Compressor, Cinema Tools, DVD Studio Pro, Soundtrack Pro and Color. The current Apple video tools of Final Cut Pro X, Motion and Compressor cover all of the video bases, including editing, compositing, encoding, transcoding and disc burning. The latter may be a bone of contention for many – since Apple has largely walked away from the optical disc world. Nevertheless, simple one-off DVDs and Blu-ray discs can still be created straight from FCP X or Compressor. Of course, FCP X has been a mixed bag for editors, with many evangelists and haters on all sides. If you square off Premiere Pro against Final Cut Pro X, then it really boils down to tracks versus trackless. Both tools get the job done. Which one do you prefer?

df_fcpstudio_motion_smMotion versus After Effects is a tougher call. If you are a power user of After Effects, then Motion may seem foreign and hard to use. If the focus is primarily on motion graphics, then you can certainly get the results you want in either. There is no direct “send to” from FCP X to Motion, but on the plus side, you can create effects and graphics templates using Motion that will appear and function within FCP X. Just like with After Effects, you can also buy stock Motion templates for graphics, show opens and other types of design themes and animations.

Logic Pro X

df_fcpstudio_lpx_smLogic Pro X is the DAW in our package. It becomes the replacement for Soundtrack Pro and the alternative to Adobe Audition or Avid Pro Tools. It’s a powerful music creation tool, but more importantly for editors, it’s a strong single file and multitrack audio production and post production application. You can get FCP X files to it via FCPXML or AAF (converted using X2Pro). There are a ton of plug-ins and mixing features that make Logic a solid DAW. I won’t dive deeply into this, but suffice it to say, that if your main interest in using Logic is to produce a better mix, then you can learn the essentials quickly and get up and running in short order.

DaVinci Resolve

df_fcpstudio_resolve_smEvery decent studio bundle needs a powerful color correction tool. Apple Color is gone, but Blackmagic Design’s DaVinci Resolve is a best-of-breed replacement. You can get the free Resolve Lite version through the App Store, as well as Blackmagic’s website. It does most of everything you need, so there’s little reason to buy the paid version for most editors who do some color correction.

Resolve 11 (due out soon) adds improved editing. There is a solid synergy with FCP X, making it not only a good companion color corrector, but also a finishing editorial tool. OFX plug-ins are supported, which adds a choice of industry standard creative effects if you need more than FCP X or Motion offer.

Pixelmator / Aperture

df_fcpstudio_pixelmator_smThis one’s tough. Of all the Adobe applications, Photoshop and Illustrator are hardest to replace. There are no perfect alternatives. On the other hand, most editors don’t need all that power. If direct feature compatibility isn’t a need, then you’ve got some choices. One of these is Pixelmator, a very lightweight image manipulation tool. It’s a little like Photoshop in the version 4-7 stages, with a mix of Illustrator tossed in. There are vector drawing and design tools and it’s optimized for core image, complete with a nice set of image filters. However, it does not include some of Photoshop CC’s power user features, like smart objects, smart filters, 3D, layer groups and video manipulation. But, if you just need to doctor some images, extract or modify logos or translate various image formats, Pixelmator might be the perfect fit. For more sophistication, another choice (not in the App Store) is Corel’s Painter, as well as Adobe Photoshop Elements (also available at the App Store).

df_fcpstudio_aperture_smAlthough Final Cut Studio never included a photo application, the Creative Cloud does include Lightroom. Since the beginning, Apple’s Aperture and Adobe’s Lightroom have been leapfrogging each other with features. Aperture hasn’t changed much in a few years and is likely the next pro app to get the “X” treatment from Apple’s engineers. Photographers have the same type of “Chevy vs. Ford” arguments about Aperture and Lightroom as editors do about NLEs. Nevertheless, editors deal a lot with supplied images and Aperture is a great tool to use for organization, clean up and image manipulation.

Other

The list I’ve outlined creates a nice set of tools, but if you need to interchange with other pros using a variety of different software, then you’ll need to invest in some “glue”. There are a number of utilities designed to go to and from FCP X. Many are available through the App Store. Examples include Xto7, 7toX, EDL-X, X2Pro, Shot Notes X, Lumberjack and many others.

For a freewheeling discussion about this topic and other matters, check out my conversation with Chris Fenwick at FCPX Grille.

©2014 Oliver Peters

NAB 2014 Thoughts

Whodathunkit? More NLEs, new cameras from new vendors and even a new film scanner! I’ve been back from NAB for a little over a week and needed to get caught up on work while decompressing. The following are some thoughts in broad strokes.

Avid Connect. My trip started early with the Avid Connect costumer event. This was a corporate gathering with over 1,000 paid attendees. Avid execs and managers outlined the corporate vision of Avid Everywhere in presentations that were head-and-shoulders better than any executive presentations Avid has given in years. For many who attended, it was to see if there was still life in Avid. I think the general response was receptive and positive. Avid Everywhere is basically a realignment of existing and future products around a platform concept. That has more impact if you own Avid storage or asset management software. Less so, if you only own a seat of Media Composer or ProTools. No new software features were announced, but new pricing models were announced with options to purchase or rent individual seats of the software – or to rent floating licenses in larger quantities.

4K. As predicted, 4K was all over the show. However, when you talked to vendors and users, there was little clear direction about actual mastering in 4K. It is starting to be a requirement in some circles, like delivering to Netflix, for example; but for most users 4K stops at acquisition. There is interest for archival reasons, as well as for reframing shots when the master is HD or 2K.

Cameras. New cameras from Blackmagic Design. Not much of a surprise there. One is the bigger, ENG-style URSA, which is Blackmagic’s solution to all of the add-ons people use with smaller HDSLR-sized cameras. The biggest feature is a 10” flip-out LCD monitor. AJA was the real surprise with its own 4K Cion camera. Think KiPro Quad with a camera built around it. Several DPs I spoke with weren’t that thrilled about either camera, because of size or balance. A camera that did get everyone jazzed was Sony’s A7s, one of their new Alpha series HDSLRs. It’s 4K-capable when recorded via HDMI to an external device. The images were outstanding. Of course, 4K wasn’t everywhere. Notably not at ARRI. The news there is the Amiraa sibling to the Alexa. Both share the same sensor design, with the Amira designed as a documentary camera. I’m sure it will be a hit, in spite of being a 2K camera.

Mac Pro. The new Mac Pro was all over the show in numerous booths. Various companies showed housings and add-ons to mount the Mac Pro for various applications. Lots of Thunderbolt products on display to address expandability for this unit, as well as Apple laptops and eventually PCs that will use Thunderbolt technology. The folks at FCPworks showed a nice DIT table/cart designed to hold a Mac Pro, keyboard, monitoring and other on-set essentials.

FCP X. Speaking of FCP X, the best place to check it out was at the off-site demo suite that FCPworks was running during the show. The suite demonstrated a number of FCP X-based workflows using third-party utilities, shared storage from Quantum and more. FCP X was in various booths on the NAB show floor, but to me it seemed limited to partner companies, like AJA. I thought the occurrences of FCP X in other booths was overshadowed by Premiere Pro CC sightings. No new FCP X feature announcements or even hints were made by Apple in any private meetings.

NLEs. The state of nonlinear editing is in more flux than ever. FCP X seems to be picking up a little steam, as is Premiere Pro. Yet, still no clear market leader across all sectors. Autodesk announced Smoke 2015, which will be the last version you can buy. Following Adobe’s lead, this year they shift to a rental model for their products. Smoke 2015 diverges more from the Flame UI model with more timeline-based effects than Smoke 2013. Lightworks for the Mac was demoed at the EditShare booth, which will make it another new option for Mac editors. Nothing new yet out of Avid, except some rebranding – Media Composer is now Media Composer | Software and Sphere is now Media Composer | Cloud. Expect new features to be rolled in by the end of this year. The biggest new player is Blackmagic Design, who has expanded the DaVinci Resolve software into a full-fledged NLE. With a cosmetic resemblance to FCP X, it caused many to dub it “the NLE that Final Cut Pro 8 should have been”. Whether that’s on the mark or just irrational exuberance has yet to be determined. Suffice it to say that Blackmagic is serious about making it a powerful editor, which for now is targeted at finishing.

Death of i/o cards. I’ve seen little mention of this, but it seems to me that dedicated PCIe video capture cards are a thing of the past. KONA and Decklink cards are really just there to support legacy products. They have less relevance in the file-based world. Most of the focus these days is on monitoring, which can be easily (and more cheaply) handled by HDMI or small Thunderbolt devices. If you looked at AJA and Matrox, for example, most of the target for PCIe cards is now to supply the OEM market. AJA supplies Quantel with their 4K i/o cards. The emphasis for direct customers is on smaller output-only products, mini-converters or self-contained format converters.

Film. If you were making a custom, 35mm film scanner – get out of the business, because you are now competing against Blackmagic Design! Their new film scanner is based on technology acquired through the purchase of Cintel a few months ago. Now Blackmagic introduced a sleek 35mm scanner capable of up to 30fps with UltraHD images. It’s $30K and connects to a Mac Pro via Thunderbolt2. Simple operation and easy software (plus Resolve) will likely rekindle the interest at a number of facilities for the film transfer business. That will be especially true at sites with a large archive of film.

Social. Naturally NAB wouldn’t be the fun it is without the opportunity to meet up with friends from all over the world. That’s part of what I get out of it. For others it’s the extra training through classes at Post Production World. The SuperMeet is a must for many editors. The Avid Connect gala featured entertainment by the legendary Nile Rodgers and his band Chic. Nearly two hours of non-stop funk/dance/disco. Quite enjoyable regardless of your musical taste. So, another year in Vegas – and not quite the ho-hum event that many had thought it would be!

Click here for more analysis at Digital Video’s website.

©2014 Oliver Peters